C/65 Manual - Text Version #

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			      C/65 MANUAL

		       Optimized Systems Software

Table of Contents

1 Abstract
4 Introduction
.. 4.1 What's in it
.. 4.2 What's not in it
5 Using C/65
.. 5.1 Special Notes

1 Abstract

  Reference Manual for C/65 a small C Language compiler for use with
  Atari 400, Atari 800, and Apple II Computers

  The programs, disks, and manuals comprising C/65 are Copyright (c)
  1982 by Optimized Systems Software, Inc and LightSpeed Software

  This manual is Copyright (c) 1982 by Optimized Systems Software, Inc.,
  of 10379 Lansdale Avenue, Cupertino, CA

  All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this
  work beyond that permitted by sections 107 and 108 of the United
  States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is


  We realise that C/65 is not the most sophisticated, most complete,
  language on the market today, but we believe that the inherent power
  and flexibility that it exhibits within its compact size are a good
  match for the size and features of the machines it is intended for.

  C/65 was authored by Sam Dillon and John Lowry, under the company name
  of LightSpeed Software, based on the Small C Compiler published in
  Dr. Dobb' Journal.  C/65 is a hand-coded translation from C code to
  6502 assembly language and is, as result, a fast and easy to use


  The following trademarked names are used in various places within this
  manual, and credit is hereby given

  OS/A+, BASIC A+, MAC/65, and C/65 are trademarks of Optimized Systems
  Software, Inc.

  Apple, Apple II, and Apple Computer(s) are trademarks of Apple
  Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA

  Atari, Atari 400, Atari 800, Atari Home Computers, and Atari 850
  Interface Nodule are trademarks of Atari, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA.

4 Introduction

  C/65 is a subset of the C programming language as defined by Kernighan
  and Richie in the book, "The C Programming Language", published by

  With a few clearly noted exceptions, programs written in C/65 are
  compilable without modification under Standard C.

  The C/65 package comes with a runtime library, which includes
  standard-looking character input and output functions, all of which
  are described later in this document. The output of the C/65 compiler
  is MAC/65 assembly language, which must be run through the MAC/65
  assembler to produce a runnable object module. It is possible for this
  to be done automatically. Since the output is assembly language, it is
  easy to write your own assembly language routines that are compatible
  with the code generated by this compiler.

4.1 What's in it

  Very briefly, C/65 supports

  ‣ the basic data types CHAR and INT
  ‣ pointers to the basic types (*)
  ‣ one dimensional arrays of the basic types (])
  ‣ the basic arithmetic, logical, and bit operations familiar to C
  ‣ simple source level character substitution ($DEFINE)
  ‣ file inclusion of C source code
  ‣ file inclusion of assembly language sourcecode (not compatible with
    standard C)
  ‣ functions with parameters and Local variables
  ‣ an if statement, with an optional else clause
  ‣ a while statement
  ‣ break and continue statements
  ‣ a return statement, with an optional return value
  ‣ compound statements grouped by braces (although '$(' and '$)' must be
    used instead of '{' and '}')
  ‣ separate compilation
  ‣ linked external declarations

4.2 What's not in it

  for experienced C programmers, use of the following standard C will
  get you in trouble:

  ‣ long ints
  ‣ unsigned ints (but note that pointers to char will do most of what
    you want here)
  ‣ floats and doubles
  ‣ structures, unions and bit fields
  ‣ multi-dimensional arrays
  ‣ parameters to $DEFINE macros
  ‣ += and his brothers -=, *=. etc
  ‣ for statement
  ‣ do-while statement
  ‣ switch statement
  ‣ &&, !!, unary !

  There are other restrictions not Listed here, but these seem to be the
  major ones. Despite this, C/65 is complete enough that one could write
  C/65 in itself, space considerations aside. For various reasons, C/65
  is written in assembly language, which makes it extremely fast and
  quite small.

5 Using C/65

  Are you a C hacker already? Did the introduction (Sections 1.1 and
  1.2) tell enough? Anxious to get started? Here you go!

  After using your favorite text editor to create a C source file, enter
  the command to OS/A+:
  │ C65 filename1 filename2 [-T


  ‣ filename1 is the name of the source file
  ‣ filename2 is the name of the output file
  ‣ -T is an optionaL flag which tells C/65 to include the C source text
    as comments in the assembler output file.

5.1 Special Notes

  E: is a valid filename for either source or output files (or
  both). I.e., compiler output can go directly to the screen, or you can
  even type in your C program on the fly.

  Assemble the output file using MAC/65. Consult your MAC/65 reference
  manual for details of this operation.  A complete, start to finish,
  compilation and assembly is shown in the next section.

  Note: MAC/65 may be used to edit C source files if TEXTMODE is
  selected (via the TEXT command).