Forth#

Background#

Forth is an interpreted programming language that uses a stack-based metaphor in an effort to reduce memory requirements as much as possible. It is perhaps the only successful example of such a language; the PostScript system was derived from it and saw much widespread use, but this was hidden inside the printers and not seen by end-users or programmers.

Stack-based languages simplify the interpreter's parser considerably because the data for an instruction always appears in the source code before the instructions that will use it. To see why this helps, consider this typical line of Basic:

A = 10 + 20 * B

To perform this line, the interpreter has to read the entire line, look up the value of B (let's say 30), realize that the * has to be performed before + and order the instructions correctly, and then finally convert those into instructions something like:

get(B,temp1) - get the value in B and store it in temp1
multiply(20,temp1,temp2) - multiply that value by 20 and store the result in temp2
add(10,temp2,temp3) - add 10 to temp2 and store the result in temp3
put(temp3,A) - store the value of temp3 into the variable A

In contrast, in a stack-based system, the programmer organizes the code in the fashion it will ultimately be performed. The equivalent would be something like:

B 20 mul
10 add

When this code is performed, the interpreter pushes the value of B on the stack, then 20. It then encounters the mul, which removes the last two items, the 30 and 20, multiplies them, and puts the result back on the stack. Next, it pushes 10 on the stack, leaving the top two locations containing 60 and 10. It then encounters add, taking the two values, adding them, and putting the result back on the stack. The top of the stack now contains the result, 70.

Notice that the stack-based version has no temporary values, and only reads a single instruction at a time, not an entire line of code. As a result, the parser is much simpler, smaller and requires less memory to run. This, in turn, generally makes it much faster, comparable to compiled programs.

Another key aspect of the language was Forth's inherently multitasking design. The program could set up separate stacks and feed different code into each one. The Forth kernel would run each of these stacks in turn, so all Forth programs had access to these features. This made writing multithreaded code very easy, so one could, for instance, have a thread reading the joystick as it moved, and then read that value in a game loop in another stack.

The downside to the stack-based approach is that it makes the language difficult to understand by mere mortals. Even tutorials purporting to show how simple it was often ended in an unreadable mess. As a result, Forth was subject to perhaps one of the longest running fanboi wars since APL was invented. Constantly derided by practically everyone in the industry, it saw some interest in spite of this, but little commercial software emerged. The singular exception is the PostScript system, which is essentially a version of Forth modified to produce graphics output.

The Atari 8-bits were being sold right in the middle of this battle, and as a result there was a fair amount of support on the platform and some interest in the press.

Forth Standards#

(Family tree)

Tutorials#

Forth Articles#

Forth Systems for the Atari#

Videos and Screencasts#

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« This page (revision-72) was last changed on 01-May-2018 01:30 by Roland B. Wassenberg