THE COMPLETE
                          SPARTADOS CONSTRUCTION SET
                                    MANUAL





PREFACE

The SpartaDOS Construction Set
What is a DOS?  To some people a DOS is just for loading games.  For others it
is the framework for programming.  Some even believe it is a silent manager
that should never be seen.  All of these are probably true.  Different people
want different things from a DOS just as they have different reasons for owning
a computer.  If you own an Atari 8 bit computer you are in luck!  ICD has
created the SpartaDOS Construction Set.  This one system, complete with useful
utilities, choice of menu or command operation, even special memory efficient
XL/XE versions with provisions for Ramdisk on the 130XE.  SpartaDOS is the DOS
for the future with support for any Atari compatible disk drive including
future add on hard disks.  It is the only DOS for 8 bit Atari computers that,
as of this writing, supports single, dual (enhanced) AND double density.
SpartaDOS won't become obsolete just because a new drive comes out.  Learn to
use SpartaDOS NOW because it will last a long, long time.


What this Set will do for you.

The SpartaDOS construction set is the culmination of two major versions and
several SpartaDOS types with many powerful utilities.  This provides you, the
user, with the building blocks for creating your own DOS disks.  By working
through this manual, you will learn the uses and requirements for: each DOS
type, the commands and the utility files.  This should leave you with the
fundamental knowledge needed to decide which DOS, if any, to use and which
utilities are needed on which disks.  After mastering the easy sections, you
are invited to move on to the more technical chapters.  There is enough meaty
information in these sections to satisfy even the most voracious appetite.  To
the more experienced, we invite you to attempt writing some of your own
SpartaDOS commands or utilities.  This manual contains an abundance of new,
useful, information for everyone, from the beginner, to the most experienced
programmer.
























l
1-INTRODUCTION...................1       BOOT command....................20
 What is a DOS?..................1       Ramdisk commands................20
 Where is the DOS?...............1      6-SUBDIRECTORIES.................22
 Power up sequence and why.......1       ?DIR command....................22
 Different Uses of a DOS.........1       CREDIR command..................22
 Storage.........................1       DELDIR command..................23
 File Management.................2       CWD command.....................23
 Binary File Loader..............2       TREE command....................24
 Install handlers................2      7-DUPLICATION....................25
 General Utilities...............2       COPY command....................25
 Miscellaneous functions.........2       SPCOPY command..................27
 What this means to you..........2       XCOPY command...................28
2-AN OVERVIEW of SpartaDOS.......2       DUPDSK command..................28
 General terms used..............3      8-MAINTENANCE....................29
 SpartaDOS terms.................4       ERASE command...................29
 Volume names....................4       UNERASE command.................30
 Directories.....................4       RENAME command..................30
 The Current Directory...........4       CHVOL command...................31
 The MAIN Directory..............4      9-PROTECTION.....................31
 Subdirectories..................5       File protection.................31
 Command Processor...............5       PROTECT command.................31
 Menus...........................5       UNPROTECT command...............32
 Handlers and drivers............5       Disk Protection.................32
 On Formatting Options...........5       LOCK command....................32
3-THE SYNTAX OF SpartaDOS........6       UNLOCK command..................33
 Files...........................6      10-LOGOMENU-STEP BY STEP.........33
 Filenames (fname.ext)...........6       Creating a binary loader........33
 Wild Carding....................7       Construction for non XL/XEs.....34
 Directory Names.................8       Construction for XL/XEs ONLY....35
 Path(s).........................8      11-MENU OPERATION................36
 Command Types...................10      MENU command....................36
 Default drive...................10      Other notes.....................39
 Major Version Differences.......10     12-TIME AND DATE SUPPORT.........40
 Directory Display Formats.......11      Activate Time/Date clock........40
4-GETTING STARTED................12      Set Time/Date clock.............40
 The Master Disks................12      TIME command....................40
 Disk Initialization/Duplication.12      SET command.....................41
 Overview of common commands.....13      TD command......................42
 Primary commands................14      XTD command.....................42
 DIR and DIRS commands...........14      TSET command....................43
 CAR command.....................15      CHTD command....................43
 BASIC command...................15     13-COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT........44
5-DISK INITIALIZATION............15      MODEM or Terminal program.......44
 INIT/XINIT commands.............16      Communicating through phones....44
 SpartaDOS 1.x versions..........17      2 Modes-RS232 handler operation.45
 NOCP.DOS........................17      RS232 commands..................45
 NOWRITE.DOS.....................17      PORT command....................46
 STANDARD.DOS....................17     14-INPUT/OUTPUT REDIRECTION......47
 SPEED.DOS.......................18      Input Redirection...............47
 SpartaDOS 2.x versions..........18      Batch files.....................47
 XD23B.DOS.......................18      PAUSE command...................48
 XC23B.DOS.......................18      TYPE command....................49
 AINIT command...................18      Output Redirection..............49
 FORMAT Command..................19      PRINT command...................50












 How I/O Redirection works.......50      Get current directory path......74
 Disabling I/O redirection.......51     20-DIFFERENCES w/Sparta 1.x-2.x..75
 DIS_BAT command.................51     APPENDICES
 XDIV command....................51      A-ERRORS........................78
15-KEYBOARD BUFFERS..............52     *B-Command summary...............79**
 Why a buffer....................52      C-TABLE of Processor Commands...86
 KEY and XKEY commands...........52      D-Accessing the real time clock.87
16-INFORMATION COMMANDS..........52      E-Atari DOS vs SpartaDOS........88
 Memory related commands.........52      F-US DOUBLER Installation.......89
 MEMLO and MEM commands..........53      G-US DOUBLER Interface..........94
 BUFS command....................53      H-Disks.........................97
 Drive related commands..........54      I-Glossary......................98
 CHKDSK command..................54
 RPM command.....................55
17-MACHINE LANGUAGE SUPPORT......55     SPARTADOS TOOL KIT...............101
 Loading/Saving/Running..........55      Table of contents...............101
 Command files...................55      CLEANUP command.................112
 LOAD command....................56      DISKRX command..................107
 RUN command.....................57      DOSMENU command.................103
 SAVE command....................57      MIOCFG command..................102
 APPEND command..................58      PROKEY command..................104
 Informational commands..........58      RENDIR command..................101
 DUMP command....................58      SORTDIR command.................103
 MDUMP command...................59      VDEL command....................102
 OFF_LOAD command................60      WHEREIS command.................102
 PUTRUN command..................60
18-DISK DRIVE I/O................61
 Basic operation WITHIN drive....61      R-TIME 8 SUPPLEMENT.............114
 Sparta Buffer Management........62     1-INTRODUCTION TO THE R-TIME 8...115
 Drive access Vector.............62     2-OVERVIEW OF SPARTADOS 3.2......119
 US DOUBLER-High speed I/O.......62     3-COMMANDS ADDED TO 3.2..........121
 Write with verify...............62      AUTOBAT command.................127
 VERIFY command..................63      BYPASS command..................126
19-THE TECHNICAL STRUCTURE.......63      DATE command....................121
 SpartaDOS functions in BASIC....63      KEY command.....................123
 Open a file.....................63      RAMDISK commands................123
 Rename/Erase files..............64      RTIME8 command..................122
 Lock,Protect,Unprotect..........65      SCOPY command...................124
 Set file position...............65      TD command......................122
 Get file position...............66      TDLINE command..................122
 Get file length.................67      TIME command....................121
 Load/Save Binary file...........67      ZHAND command...................123
 Create, Delete Change Directory.67     4-UPDATE ON TECHNICAL STRUCTURE..127
 Set boot file...................68     5-THE TIME/DATE 'Z:' HANDLER.....130
 Unlock/Format disk..............68     6-USING THE SUPRA WITH SPARTADOS.133
 Directory listing...............69
 COMTAB EQUATES..................69
 Format of SpartaDOS Disks.......71
 Boot sectors....................71
 Bit maps........................72
 Sector maps.....................73
 Directory Data Structure........73
 More functions through CIO......74
 Check disk status...............74












__________________________
Chapter 1___INTRODUCTION

What is a DOS?
The Disk Operating System (DOS) is a special program which directs the internal
operation of your Atari computer and disk drive.  A DOS . . .

o manages the allocation and de-allocation of files
o provides a set of commands to interact with it
o provides a means of parameter passing to the user programs
o provides a set of useful tools to aid in software development
o oversees the allocation of memory
o controls the flow of data in a system.


Where is the DOS?

When your Atari computer is first turned on (booted), the computer's Operating
System (OS) checks to see what devices are present.  If a functioning Atari
compatible disk drive is attached and set as D1: (drive one), the computer will
recognize the drive and try to read in a special program which should take
control after it loads.  This program is usually the DOS and becomes a part of
the computers lower memory until the power is turned off.  The DOS protects
itself from being written over by other programs with a marker (MEMLO) which is
placed just above its top of memory.  Hopefully programs which then operate
(run) with the DOS will obey this MEMLO marker and stay above it.  So, where is
the DOS?  It was never in the drive.  It is on a disk and then read into the
computers memory.  This is where a resident DOS remains, usually until the
system is rebooted.


Power up Sequence and Why

It is important to power up your Atari computer system in the correct sequence
or the drives will not be recognized by the system.  Always turn drive 1 on
before the computer, insert your DOS disk into the drive and then power up the
computer.  The computers Operating System then recognizes the drive and starts
loading the DOS.  The other components in your system don't have any special
requirements in the power up sequence, but generally the computer is powered up
last.  The power down sequence doesn't really matter as long as you take the
disks out of the drive before turning the power off.  Failure to do this may
write bad information on the disks when using 810 drives, 1050 drives are OK
for this.


Different uses of a DOS

STORAGE
One common use for a DOS is to act as the storage device for another program.
The Atariwriter and Atariartist cartridges are good examples of this kind of
DOS use.  The system is booted up as usual but after the cartridge takes
control, the DOS type commands are actually executed through the cartridge
menu.  The DOS is almost invisible to the user but still acts as the manager
for disk storage.




                                       1







FILE MANAGEMENT
File management becomes more important as system size increases.  Things like
subdirectories and time and date stamping have become invaluable in a well
organized filing system.  SpartaDOS is the only DOS that allows time and date
file stamping on the 8 bit Atari computer.  Subdirectories, like file folders,
allow you to save different files under different categories.  Time and date
stamping (when the file is created or rewritten) helps in maintaining
constantly changing files and allows you to determine when it is time to
discard others.

BINARY FILE LOADER
Binary files are machine language programs in file form.  These normally can be
executed (run) as command files under SpartaDOS or they can be run under Atari
DOS 2 with the L menu command.  LOGOMENU, our special menu program, makes
binary file loading almost foolproof and provides a beautiful display (impress
your friends) as well.  This is a common use for a DOS and it is a good way to
prevent the inexperienced user from damaging your valuable files by
accidentally entering the wrong command.

INSTALL HANDLERS
Handlers are special programs written to handle a device.  An example of this
would be a printer handler written for a specific printer or a communications
handler that provides a link to the communications line.  The DOS is the most
complex handler in the computer, but it will in turn, install other handlers as
needed.

GENERAL UTILITIES
Utilities are included for housekeeping and programming functions.  Commands
like ERASE or RENAME will delete or rename a file.  CHKDSK, RPM and MEM are
informational utilities which give important information about the condition of
the system.  MDUMP and OFF_LOAD are examples of information utilities
specifically for programmers.  SpartaDOS was written in a way so that utilities
can later be added without rewriting the DOS.

MISCELLANEOUS Functions
SpartaDOS allows the rerouting of normal input and output of the system (called
redirection or diversion).  It also provides a standard for transferring
information from one system to another.

What all this means to you
We are providing all this information in the hope that some of you will read
ahead to gain a better understanding of computer systems and someday, if not
already, become the new computer literates.



__________________________
Chapter 2___AN OVERVIEW OF SPARTADOS

The following is a list of term standards used throughout the manual.

o The ESC key exits most of the external commands in SpartaDOS.  Commands such
as DUMP require that you use the BREAK key.





                                       2







o A <return> means to press the RETURN key in our early examples.  You may
assume that a RETURN will terminate your input except in special cases (such as
in INIT when single letter or number responses are required).

o The apostrophe or single quote mark is often shown at the beginning (') and
end (') of a command or filename when written into general text.  These are
used as separators as in the example 'D3:INIT<return>'.  The quote marks are
NOT to be typed, you would just enter D3:INIT and then press RETURN.

o Many commands require that you enter an address or an offset.  It is safe to
assume that hexadecimal (Hex) values should be entered.  Hexadecimal is a base
16 numbering system which uses the digits A-F to represent decimal values of
10-15.  If a number is preceded by a $ in this manual, it is a Hex number.  DO
NOT type the $ before a hexadecimal number with SpartaDOS commands.

o Many commands have restrictions as to what DOS and what format on disks is
involved.  In the following examples 'n' refers to the major version number
which will be 1 or 2.  In these and all other descriptions, 'x' refers to the
current revision level of that version.  Here are some sample phrases and what
they mean:


General terms used

CP version n.x
The CP stands for Command Processor.  For internal commands, this indicates
that the Command Processor understands the command.  For external commands,
this indicates that the command will interface to that version of SpartaDOS
correctly.  SpartaDOS version 1.x lacks many of the internal functions that
version 2.x has.  Thus, if a command (such as MENU) uses a new internal
function, it will not work with version 1.x

Version n.x disk
Some commands under CP version 2.x (like LOCK or BOOT) will only operate on
disks formatted by XINIT.  The data table on sector one of SpartaDOS disks is
slightly different between versions, thus, the distinction is made (note that
the major version is always in the command table).  XINIT creates version 2.x
disk and INIT or FORMAT creates the version 1.x disks.

Atari DOS 2 disks
This refers to any disk formatted under Atari DOS 2 or by the AINIT command.
Commands such as CWD, CREDIR, BOOT, etc don't have meaning on this type of
disk, since there are no subdirectories on these disks.  Also, note that
SpartaDOS 1.x does not directly handle Atari DOS 2 at all, whereas SpartaDOS
2.x has an extended Atari DOS 2 handler built in.  (SpartaDOS 2.x can read,
write and run Atari DOS 2 formatted disks in both single and double density.)
When the syntax of a command is given, several symbols are used to represent
certain parts of the command.  The following is a list of these symbols:

fname  This is the filename without an extension, thus it is from one to eight
       characters in length.

.ext   This is the filename extension, thus it represents from 0-3 chars.





                                       3







path   This is the complete directory path from the current directory to the
       desired directory.  It DOES NOT include the filename.

[...]  This indicates that whatever is inside the brackets is optional.  Do not
       type the brackets.


SpartaDOS terms

The following are terms that are often used to describe SpartaDOS formatted
disks.

Volume Names
When formatted, SpartaDOS disks are given a volume name.  Each disk should be
given a unique volume name such as Games_1, Games_2, WP_1, 000243 etc.  Volume
names can be from 1-8 characters long and may include any of the 256 possible
numbers, characters or symbols, available on the Atari keyboard.

Version 1.x disk must have unique volume names, otherwise severe problems may
occur.

SpartaDOS uses a sector buffering system quite different from Atari DOS 2.
Whenever a sector is to be read, SpartaDOS first checks to see if it is in a
buffer.  When you change disks in a drive, there is no way for SpartaDOS to
gain knowledge of this, other than to read a particular sector and compare a
certain region to what it used to be.  Thus, whenever a file is opened, the
first sector is read and volume names are compared.  If they are different,
SpartaDOS will update its copy of the volume name and abort all sector buffers
containing information about the previous disk.  If the old and the new disks
have the same volume name, SpartaDOS will not know there is a new disk in the
drive and consequently the new disk is in danger of being updated with bad
information.  Even though version 2.x disks have extra protection (random and
sequence numbers), if they are used under version 1.x SpartaDOS, the extra
protection is not used.

Directories
The disk is broken up into directories, which may contain up to 127 files.  The
root (base) directory is named MAIN.  Other directories (which are called
subdirectories) can be created under MAIN.  The same rules apply to both
subdirectory names and to filenames except that the subdirectory names show up
in the directory listing with <DIR> after the name and have special commands to
create and delete them.  Subdirectories may be nested under other directories
with no limits restricting the total number of directories other than
practicality and disk space.  Paths are used to describe the connection from
one directory to another.

The Current Directory
The current directory is the directory that you are presently in.  If no path
is given with a command or filename, then the current directory is used.  The
CWD (change working directory) command selects a new directory to be the
current directory.

The MAIN Directory
The root directory (MAIN) is a special directory.  Unlike subdirectories, it




                                       4







cannot be deleted.  Whenever DOS is re-initialized (by RESET or by a new disk
being placed in the drive), SpartaDOS forces MAIN to be the current directory.
It is good practice to keep any external command files in the MAIN directory.
When an external command is used while you are in a subdirectory, SpartaDOS
scans the subdirectory for the file.  If it is not found there, SpartaDOS then
checks the MAIN directory.  Note that this is a process performed internally by
SpartaDOS and is not a function of the Command Processor.  The trigger for this
action is simply the act of opening a file in read-only mode.  Thus, this will
work from BASIC, external commands, and any user application program.

Subdirectories
All directories other than MAIN can be thought of as subdirectories.  SpartaDOS
uses the tree directory structure, where the MAIN directory is the trunk and
each subdirectory can be thought of as a branch (which in turn may have more
branches).  The path can be used in various DOS commands to specify which
directories act as source and/or destination for the command.  A '>' at the
beginning of the path forces a start at the MAIN (root) directory.  A '<' moves
up the tree one directory (to the parent) and a directory name within the path
selects a branch using '>' as a placeholder between directory names.

Command Processor
Instead of a menu, commands are typed into a Command Processor much in the way
commands are typed into BASIC.  The extension of .COM is RESERVED FOR EXTERNAL
COMMAND FILES.  The general syntax of an external command is:
[Dn:][path>]fname[parameters]<return>

Note that the [Dn:][path>] should not be used when entering an internal
command.  Also internal commands should be in all upper case, whereas external
commands may be in upper or lower case.

The extension of .BAT is RESERVED FOR BATCH FILES.  Batch files may be invoked
by typing 'fname <return>'.  Do NOT type the extension in either of these cases
(although it is legal under CP version 2.x).

Menus
SpartaDOS provides 2 menu programs.  One is a binary loader (discussed in
chapter 10) and the other is a general command menu (chapter 11).  The general
menu is included for people who are more comfortable with menu operation.  Note
that the general menu  (MENU.COM) is to be used under CP version 2.x only.

Handlers and Drivers
Many handlers or drivers are provided on your SpartaDOS disks.  These load into
memory and become resident once loaded (by linking into vectors and moving
MEMLO up).  Some examples of these are: RS232, AT_RS232, KEY, MENU and RD130.

On Formatting Options
SpartaDOS allows many format options but your drive must have the specific
hardware in order for the options to work.  You cannot use double density
format with the standard 810 drive or double sided format with any 810 or 1050
drive.  These options may seem to format an incompatible drive with no errors,
but the disk will not be fully functional.  Once a format is written on a given
disk, its drive will automatically configure for that format type when trying
to read or write to it.  See chapter 5 for more on formatting.





                                       5







__________________________
Chapter 3___THE SYNTAX OF SPARTADOS

This chapter contains the details that chapter 2 left out.  These two chapters
along with appendix B are probably the most important in the manual.  The rest
falls into 1 of 2 categories: 1) technical and programmer oriented information
or, 2) detailed command descriptions.  If you feel comfortable with SpartaDOS
after reading this chapter, go ahead and try SpartaDOS, the best way to learn
about a program is by experience.

Files
Unlike other Atari compatible disk operating systems, SpartaDOS supports
subdirectories.  This means that there are new rules for specifying which file
you want to access.  Files are specified by a path and a filename which taken
together are considered a pathname and specify the location and name of a file.
The definition of a pathname follows along with many examples to give you an
idea of just how it works.

Filename conventions
Filenames consist of a name and an optional extension separated by a period
(fname[.ext]).  Legal characters are as follows:

    A..Z (all letters of the alphabet)
    0..9 (all numbers)
    ____ (underscore characters)

The fname part consists of from 1-8 characters and the .ext part consists of
from 0-3 characters.  Here are some examples of legal and illegal filenames,
and if illegal, why.

 TEST1.123-Legal 
 A FILE.LST-Illegal-no spaces allowed
 ANOTHER.FIL-Legal
 4TH.TRY-Legal name
 B_FILE.JN-Legal
 PROG.BASIC-legal (IC part of. BASIC won't be known)
 DATA#-Illegal character
 B-Legal

Actually, any filename is legal under SpartaDOS version 2.x, but once an
offending character is encountered, no other characters are accepted.  Thus,
the 2nd example would have the name 'A'.  SpartaDOS version 1.x is much more
fussy about filenames.  It is important to develop a standard for naming files.
The most common method is to reserve specific extensions for certain types of
files.  The following list contains some of the most common extensions used
along with the type of file it is used on.

.COM-Command file (load and go file)
.BAS-BASIC saved program
.TXT-ASCII text file
.OBJ-An object code file
.SYS-A system file
.EXE-An executable file
.ASM-Machine language source file listing




                                       6







.BIN-Binary data file
.DAT-general data file
.PRN-listing to be printed
.BAT-batch file
.HEX-hexadecimal coded file
.FNT-a font file
.LST-LISTed Basic file
.SRC-general source file
.MUS-Music file
.DOS-SpartaDOS module (file) for INIT/XINIT commands

Wild Carding
Two wild card characters (* and ?) can be used to take the place of characters
in a filename in order to represent a range of filenames.  The ? is a don't
care character.  This means that it will match any character in its position.
The * is like a repeat until period or a repeat until end of filename question
mark.  An * can help in the speed of entering external commands.  For example,
'OF' can be specified instead of 'OFF_LOAD' as long as there are no other files
that begin with OF.  The following examples illustrate the use of the wild
cards:

*.BAS    Represents the files that have an extension of 'BAS' 

*.*      All files in the directory.

DATA??   This represents all files that begin with 'DATA' and have any
         combination of letters or numbers for the last two characters.

GR*.BAS  This represents all files that begin with 'GR' and have an extension
         of 'BAS'.

TEST.?B  This represents all files with the name 'TEST' and have any letter or
         number followed by a 'B' as the extension.

The internal commands DIR and COPY will supply a default filespec of *.* if
none is specified.  All internal and most external commands supply a device if
none is entered.  Wild cards are legal in filenames if the file is to be read
or matched, but are illegal if trying to save as a filename.  Examples of
illegal usage when writing are:

        SAVE FILE?.DAT 2000 3000        (or APPEND)
        PRINT OUTPUT.*                  (assumed D: device)
        COPY E: TEXT*.FIL               (E: is not a directory device thus
                                        TEXT????.FIL is the name)

Wild cards can be used with most commands that use a filename in the command
line.  One of the most common and time saving uses of wild cards is to execute
external command files.  Consider the following example:

   DONKEY.COM
   SPACE_IN.COM
   GI_JOE.COM
   MISSION.COM
   FILE_MGR.COM




                                       7







   TELEPHON.COM

Any of the above files in a directory could be run by simply typing the first
letter and *<RETURN>

If DISMAL.COM was included in the above example, then DI*<RETURN> would execute
it, you should then use DO*<RETURN> for DONKEY.COM

CAUTION: Wild cards are great time savers but can be very dangerous, read the
warnings on using COPY and ERASE.

Directory Names
The same conventions apply to directory names that are used for filenames,
however the extension (.ext) is NOT generally used on a directory name.  In
fact, most SpartaDOS utilities do not support extensions on directory names,
but they will show up when doing a standard directory (SpartaDOS format).  You
may also use wild cards in directory names but the same restrictions still
apply.  That is, you may use wild cards when referring to a directory, but when
creating (CREDIR) a directory, the name must be free of wild cards.

Path(s)
Since SpartaDOS can have more than one directory on each disk, it uses a path
to describe the route from one directory to another.  For our use, a path is
the list of directories from the current directory to the destination
directory.  The '>' is a delimiter (place holder) between each directory name
in the path.  When you are not in the MAIN directory, you can also use one '<'
for each directory to move backwards (to the parent directory).  For ease of
further explanation, directory names shall be referred to as 'DNAME'.  The '>',
if used at the start of a path, moves the reference directly to the MAIN
directory.  The general syntax of a PATH is:

   [>][dname>..dname]

Where the optional starting '>' indicates to start at the MAIN directory and
each 'dname' moves one directory along the path with '..' meaning "repeat
until".  An optional syntax of a path, which starts moving backwards (towards
the parent directory), is:

   <[<..<][dname>..dname]

Where each '<' moves backwards one directory in the path.  The rest of the
syntax is the same as in the previous syntax.  Suppose your diskette had the
following directories:


   (1) Volume:    TEST
       Directory: Main

       GAMES1       <DIR>   1-01-84  3:59p
       TESTPROG BAS  23717  4-05-85  2:45p
       MODEM        <DIR>   3-09-85  1:18p


   (2) Volume:    TEST




                                       8







       Directory: GAMES1

       ARCADE       <DIR>   4-06-85 12:01p
       BASIC        <DIR>   4-06-85  12:04p


   (3) Volume:    TEST
       Directory: ARCADE

       MY_OWN   COM  12623  4-06-85 12:09p
       FRIENDS  COM   8710  4-06-85  1:10p
       LONER    DAT   3499  4-09-85  3:59p


   (4) Volume:    TEST
       Directory: MODEM

       XFER     BAS  23910  1-01-84  3:39p
       RS232    COM    127  1-01-84  3:59p


   (Note that the directory BASIC is not shown)

For the following set of filenames, suppose that you are currently in the
directory called GAMES1.  The pathname given is how you would access that file.
Note: If you were going to execute the command files, you would leave off the
'.COM' extension.

RS232.COM    path=   <MODEM>RS232.COM or
                     >MODEM>RS232.COM

FRIENDS.COM  path=   ARCADE>FRIENDS.COM or
                     >GAMES1>ARCADE>FRIENDS.COM

TESTPROG.BAS path=   <TESTPROG.BAS or
                     >TESTPROG.BAS

For the next set of filenames, assume that you are currently in the directory
called ARCADE.  The pathname given is how you would access that file.

RS232.COM    path=   <<MODEM>RS232.COM or
                     >MODEM>RS232.COM

FRIENDS.COM  path=   FRIENDS.COM or
                     >GAMES1>ARCADE>FRIENDS.COM

TESTPROG.BAS path=   <<TESTPROG.BAS or
                     >TESTPROG.BAS

Note that the 'path' in all the above examples is the full pathname.  FOR THE
REST OF THE MANUAL, 'path' WILL REFER TO ALL BUT THE FILENAME AND PROCEEDING
'>' (if any) of the full pathname.  Thus, the path refers to a specific
directory, not the file in it.





                                       9







The best way to become comfortable with pathnames is to experiment.  Start
creating subdirectories and keep trying new things until it becomes natural.


Command Types
The commands in SpartaDOS are of two types, INTERNAL or EXTERNAL.

Internal commands are directly understood by the Command Processor.  They
include commands such as DIR (directory), ERASE (delete file) etc.  Most
internal commands do NOT affect the program area (for BASIC, etc).  There are
two exceptions: COPY uses the program area as a buffer, and BUFS changes the
low boundary of the program area.  BOTH OF THESE COMMANDS CAUSE THE CARTRIDGE
TO DO A COLD START (and thus wipe out any user program).

External commands need to be loaded from disk each time they're used.  They
include commands such as TREE (list all directories), INIT (format a diskette)
etc.  ALL EXTERNAL COMMANDS DESTROY THE CONTENTS OF THE PROGRAM AREA.  These
commands cause the cartridge to do a cold start (and thus wipe out any user
program).  External commands interface to the Command Processor through a large
data table.  Therefore, they are able to accept command lines (filenames,
numbers and other parameters) for processing.


Default Drive
The default drive is the drive assumed when none is specified on a filename.
THE DEFAULT DRIVE IS ONLY USED WHEN USING THE Command Processor!!  To change
the default drive, simply type the new device code (ie. 'D2:') followed by a
RETURN.  The 'D' and the colon (:) ARE REQUIRED.  In the following example, the
user input is in caps.

   D1:D3:<RETURN>

   D3:DIR<RETURN>

In the first line, the user changes the default drive to drive 3.  On the next
line, he/she does a directory of drive 3.  Note that the normal syntax of the
DIR command is: 'DIR[Dn][fname[.ext]]', but in the example the user did not
type the 'Dn:' (nor the 'fname.ext' -- '*.*' was assumed).


Major SpartaDOS Version Differences
If you have booted SpartaDOS already, you have undoubtedly seen that SpartaDOS
version 2.x is almost twice as big as version 1.x, so you ask why.  Well,
version 2.x contains everything in version 1.x plus the following:

  o An enhanced Atari DOS 2 handler (lots of extras)
  o Supports 8 disk drives (as opposed to 4)
  o High Speed built in both 2.x versions
  o 14 new internal Command Processor commands
  o 8 new XIO functions
  o Provides the user with an EXTRA 4K PROGRAM AREA
  o Much better user error prevention
  o 16 new external commands (over original 1.1 master)
  o An Atari logo binary file loader




                                       10







  o A sophisticated DOS command MENU

There is one and only one catch, YOU MUST USE AN XL OR AN XE Atari computer to
run version 2.x! (excluding the 600XL with only 16K memory and XL/XE computers
with a modified OS chip installed).


Directory Display Formats
The SpartaDOS file directory is revolutionary in the Atari world.  SpartaDOS is
the only DOS that SUPPORTS TIME and DATE STAMPING and gives file sizes in bytes
(characters).  Only one other DOS for the Atari supports subdirectories (as of
this writing), but none are as elegant or powerful as SpartaDOS.  The following
is a typical directory listing:

D1:DIR

Volume:    WRK_2.3B
Directory: Main

AT-RS232 COM   1863  2-12-85  6:38p
CHTD     COM    899  3-10-85 11:22a
UTIL         <DIR>   4-11-85  2:06p
CHVOL    COM    453  2-24-85  6:16p
DUMP     COM   1033  2-13-85 12:07p
RPM      COM    672  4-04-85 10:10p
XD23B    DOS  10729  4-06-85  1:17p
 577 FREE SECTORS


Notice that the volume and directory name are included in the directory header.
This is an easy way to identify your diskettes.  The time and date each file is
created follows each file's (or directory's) name.  The file sizes are
expressed in bytes (rather than in sectors like Atari DOS 2).  Subdirectories
(<DIR>) are easy to spot at a glance.  THIS TYPE OF LISTING IS ONLY GIVEN BY
THE DIR COMMAND FOR SpartaDOS DISKETTES!  There is an alternate listing type
that is as follows (for the same diskette):

D1:DIRS

 *AT-RS232 COM 016
 *CHTD     COM 009
 *UTIL     DIR 002  DIR part is in inverse video
  CHVOL    COM 005
 *DUMP     COM 010
  RPM      COM 007
  XD23B    DOS 086
 577 FREE SECTORS


Notice that this format has asterisks in front of some of the entries.  An
asterisk means that the entry is erase protected.  That is, you can't erase or
modify the file until it is unprotected (see the PROTECT and UNPROTECT
commands).  Also the directory is indicated by an inverse DIR as the file
extension.  The sector counts are derived from byte counts on SpartaDOS




                                       11







diskettes and are actual on Atari DOS 2 diskettes.  THIS TYPE OF LISTING IS
GIVEN IF USING THE DIRS COMMAND OR YOU ARE LISTING AN ATARI DOS 2 DISKETTE
DIRECTORY!  Note that version 1.x does not have a DIRS command nor does it
recognize the PROTECTed and UNPROTECTed status of files.  Version 1.x does have
a short form directory, but it is inaccessible through the Command Processor
and the sector counts will show all zeros.



__________________________
Chapter 4___GETTING STARTED

This chapter is primarily an orientation to SpartaDOS.  You will be taken step
by step through formatting a diskette, displaying a directory, entering a small
BASIC program, returning to DOS and doing a few file operations.


The Master Diskettes
The SpartaDOS Construction Set includes two 'MASTER' diskettes.  Both are
formatted in single density (90K).  The disk with the black label has the
version 2.x format along with the CP version 2.x DOS files, with commands and
utilities that apply to SpartaDOS 2.x.  Side A is the only side used on this
diskette.  The version 2.x DOS will only boot up on an XL/XE type computer.  If
you are using one of these machines for the following lessons, use the black
labeled diskette.  An error message will result if you try to boot this disk up
in a non XL/XE computer.

The disk with the grape label was formatted on side A with SPEED.DOS, a CP
version 1.x.  This side also has the utility files which might be used with a
version 1.x DOS.  Side B is a demonstration of our binary file loader menu
(LOGOMENU.SYS), running under NOCP.DOS, with several public domain games.  Both
sides of this diskette will boot up on any Atari 8 bit computer with at least
24K of RAM.  If you don't have an XL/XE computer, use the grape labeled
diskette for the following lessons.


Diskette Initialization and Duplication
You will be using BASIC, so if your computer is NOT an XL or an XE type
computer, make sure you have a BASIC cartridge installed.  XL/XE owners use the
internal BASIC option.  Next, boot the Master Diskette and wait for the 'D1:'
prompt.  Type 'XINIT<RETURN>' if you are on an XL or XE computer or
'INIT<RETURN>' for all others.  Now type 'N' for no DOS.  You will be
duplicating the Master Diskette, so all you are really doing is formatting a
new diskette and giving it a volume name.  NOW REMOVE YOUR MASTER DISKETTE.
Press a '1' as the drive to format, '1' for 40 tracks, '1' for single density
and type 'TEST<RETURN>' for the volume name.  If you have a US Doubler
installed in drive 1, answer 'Y' in response to the next question, otherwise
answer 'N'.  Now insert a blank diskette into drive 1 and press RETURN.  When
the drive is done formatting the diskette, press the ESC key and the 'D1:'
prompt should appear.

The next step is to duplicate the master disk onto the newly formatted disk.
Re-insert the disk you booted (the master) and type DUPDSK<RETURN>.  Answer 1
for the next two questions (source and destination drive are drive 1).  Now




                                       12







press RETURN.  When asked to insert the destination disk, remove the master
disk and replace it with the one you just formatted.  Now press RETURN again.
If asked to insert the source disk, replace the newly formatted disk with the
master disk and repeat.  When the copy is complete, press ESC to RETURN to the
Command Processor (a D1: prompt should appear).  You now have a backup copy of
SpartaDOS.  Now put the master disk away so that it will not be damaged.


Overview of Common Commands
Now that you have a backup, use it for the rest of this session.  Type
DIR<RETURN>.  You should now see a file directory.  Quite different from other
Atari DOS's isn't it?  If you are using SpartaDOS 2.x, try the following: BASIC
OFF<RETURN> and then CAR<RETURN>.  Notice that it printed an error message.
The command BASIC OFF disables the BASIC cartridge and frees up that memory.
Now type BASIC ON<RETURN> to re-install the BASIC cartridge (Note that this
only works with the internal XL/XE basic).  Now type CAR<RETURN> (both
versions) to enter the BASIC cartridge.  You should now have a READY prompt.
Now type in the following BASIC program (end each line with a RETURN).

  100 OPEN #1,8,0,"D:TEST.DAT
  110 FOR A=1 TO 10
  120 PRINT #1;RND(1)*100
  130 NEXT A
  140 CLOSE #1

Now type RUN<RETURN>, you should notice that the drive starts spinning and the
computer makes its usual beeping sound.  When you get the READY prompt, type
SAVE "D:TEST.BAS<RETURN>.  This saves the program onto the disk in the commonly
used tokenized form.  When you get the next READY prompt, type LIST
"D:TEST.LST<RETURN> to save a text (ASCII) version of your program.  Now type
DOS<RETURN> to return to the Command Processor.  Type DIR TEST.<RETURN> to see
the files you just created (notice the time and date--this is the default).

Now type TIME<RETURN> (this erases your memory version of the BASIC program).
You will notice the top line has a time and date (which is rapidly ticking off
the amount of time the computer has been on).  When the clock has caught up
type SET<RETURN>.  Now enter the current date and time as specified by the
prompt, each followed by a return.  Enter TYPE TEST.LST<RETURN>, you will now
see a listing of the program you just typed in.  Type TYPE TEST.DAT <RETURN>,
this is the file your program just created.  You can use the TYPE command to
display these files because they are ASCII (text) files.
Now re-enter BASIC (CAR <RETURN>) and type LOAD "D:TEST.BAS<RETURN>.  List the
program (LIST<RETURN>) and resave it (SAVE "D:TEST.BAS<RETURN>).  Exit BASIC
again (DOS<RETURN>) and do another directory of the test files (DIR TEST.*
<RETURN>).  Notice that TEST.BAS has the current time and date on its entry.
Now type the following series of commands (end each one with a RETURN):

  RENAME TEST.   *RANDOM.*
  ERASE RANDOM.DAT
  CAR        (NOW IN BASIC)
  LIST       (PROGRAM IS STILL THERE)
  RUN
  DOS
  DIR TEST.




                                       13







  DIR RANDOM.*
  TYPE TEST.DAT

Notice that there is only one TEST file, this is the result of running the
BASIC program.  Also notice that it contains the current time.  The BASIC
program is saved under the name of RANDOM in two forms.  Also notice that the
file RANDOM.DAT does not exist (it was erased in the second line).  Feel free
to try more experiments at this point.  The rest of the manual primarily
describes the usage of the commands available in SpartaDOS.  It is very
important to just try new things to get a feel for the DOS.


Primary Commands
The remainder of this chapter contains the detailed descriptions of the DIR,
DIRS, CAR and BASIC commands.  They are:


__________________________
DIR and DIRS Commands
Purpose - The DIR command displays the volume name and the specified directory
name, lists files and subdirectories in the directory, the file sizes in bytes,
the date and time the files were created and the number of free sectors left on
the disk.  The DIRS command lists the directory in a DOS 2 (CP version 2.x
only) kind of way.  The DIR and DIRS commands may be used to list all files
matching a file spec pattern by using wild cards.

Syntax
DIR [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]   or
DIRS [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]

Type and Restrictions
DIR is internal under CP versions 1.x-2.x
DIRS is internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
If no file spec is specified, all files will be listed (ie. a default file spec
of *.* is used).  If no path is specified, the current directory is listed.
Both DIR and DIRS work with SpartaDOS 2.x while only DIR works with 1.x.  With
version 2.x, DIRS displays a short form similar to Atari DOS 2 including the
protected status (which DIR doesn't return).  When reading an Atari DOS 2
directory with CP version 2.x, both DIR and DIRS give the same short directory
result.

Example
  DIR

This command displays the entire current directory of the default drive.

  DIR D2:MODEM>XM*.*

This displays the directory range of XM??????.??? under subdirectory MODEM on
drive 2.






                                       14







__________________________
CAR Command
Purpose - This command exits from DOS to a cartridge.

Syntax
CAR

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
Since SpartaDOS is memory resident, any previously loaded cartridge program
will remain intact when moving from DOS back to the cartridge, unless any
external command or the COPY command was executed (or BUFS under CP version
1.x).  If the latter is true, the program will be erased upon return to the
cartridge.

Unlike other DOS's for the Atari, SpartaDOS gives immediate control to the DOS
after power up.  If you want the cartridge to come up automatically, create a
STARTUP.BAT batch file on disk which contains the CAR command. (NOCP.DOS and
XC23B.DOS give immediate control to the cartridge).

SpartaDOS 2.x has built in error checking in the event no cartridge is present.
With SpartaDOS 1.x, the CAR command will cause a system crash (lockup) if there
is no cartridge present.


__________________________
BASIC Command
Purpose - This command installs or removes the internal BASIC on the XL/XE
computers.

Syntax
BASIC ON or
BASIC OFF

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
When the XL/XE computer is booted up normally with no cartridge plugged in, the
internal BASIC is automatically installed taking up 8K of ram.  Holding down
the OPTION key when booting will keep the internal BASIC disabled.  The BASIC
command will install or disable the built in BASIC and relocate the display
memory as needed.  This command can be included as the last command in a
STARTUP.BAT batch file so you don't have to hold down the OPTION key.  Note:
the computer does a RESET (warm start) operation while executing this command.
This causes the batch file to automatically close.



__________________________
Chapter 5-Disk Initialization





                                       15







The format disk command was very simple when the Atari 810 was the only drive
available.  The only choice was single density, single sided and 40 tracks, 1
command was sufficient.  As 3rd party vendors developed more sophisticated
drives, Atari owners suddenly had a choice.  Percom, a leader in new products
introduced double density drives, and then double-sided drives.  SWP brought
out the ATR8000 which could use almost any drive on the market.  No longer was
Atari DOS 2 sufficient for all these drives.  Many Atari DOS 2 clones evolved
to offer quick fixes but most just worked like Atari DOS 2 with a lot of
patches.  ICD has developed standard disk initialization commands which should
eliminate disk format problems.  These commands offer format menus which work
with all available drives and can be upgraded easily for future drives without
a major rewrite.


__________________________
INIT and XINIT Commands
Purpose - These are the master formatting programs for SpartaDOS.

Syntax
INIT
XINIT

Type and Restrictions
XINIT and INIT are external under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
INIT will only create version 1.x disks
XINIT will only create version 2.x disks

Remarks
The INIT and XINIT programs are necessary since SpartaDOS can support many
different drive configurations.  These programs load SpartaDOS from .DOS
modules which must also be on the disk.  The FORMAT command is a stripped down
version of the INIT command which reads the DOS from an already existing
version 1.x disk with SpartaDOS on it.

Example
  INIT   or
  XINIT

This program will display a menu of the possible SpartaDOS versions available
on the disk along an N option for no DOS.  This is selected if you don't want
SpartaDOS on the disk but want it formatted.  Assuming you selected a DOS, the
correct DOS module (file) then loads into memory.

IF USING INIT, YOU ARE THEN ASKED IF YOU WANT TO MODIFY DEFAULT PARAMETERS.
You may select to write with verify, the default drive and the number of
buffers.  These parameters are the defaults used when the new disk is booted.
Next you will be asked which drive you want to format, valid selections are
from 1-4 with INIT and from 1-8 with XINIT.

INIT and XINIT then give a menu of tracks and sides.  Normally you will use
option 1 (40 tracks/SS) unless you are using an ATR8000 interface or Percom
double-sided drives.

The next choice, density, allows single density (128 byte sectors), double




                                       16







density (256 byte sectors) and 1050 enhanced density (128 byte sectors).

Volume name? is the next question.  You must enter a name (this should be
unique to this particular disk).

Next you will be asked if to use the UltraSpeed sector skew.  Answer N unless
your drive is equipped with the US Doubler and you are using a high speed
version of SpartaDOS.  The US Doubler sector skew will be read slowly by a
standard drive but 2-3 times faster in a US Doubler modified drive.

Now insert the disk to be formatted and press RETURN.  Disk initialized...will
appear when finished.  To format more disks, press RETURN, to leave this
program, press the ESC key.

There are currently 4 versions of SpartaDOS 1.x and 2 versions of SpartaDOS
2.x.  The uses for each version are as follows:


SpartaDOS 1.x Versions
There are presently two distinct SpartaDOS families.  SpartaDOS 1.x was the
first DOS family released by ICD.  Versions of SpartaDOS 1.x are generally
limited to approximately 7K in size due to memory restrictions in the 400/800
computers.  SpartaDOS 1.x versions are not Atari DOS 2 compatible, though files
may be copied between DOS's using SPCOPY.  All SpartaDOS versions now support
UltraSpeed (high speed) I/O except for STANDARD.DOS (1 1.x version).  The
SpartaDOS 1.x versions are listed below.


NOCP.DOS
NOCP is a special high speed version of SpartaDOS to be used with functions
much like Atari DOS 2, it has no Command Processor (NOCP means No Command
Processor).  NOCP.DOS tries to load an AUTORUN.SYS file before it passes
control onto the cartridge.  Note that there is no equivalent of the DUP.SYS
which Atari DOS 2 loads after the AUTORUN.SYS (if no cartridge was present).
Some uses of this version are to load our LOGOMENU.SYS program (binary file
loader), a printer handler for the Atariwriter cartridge or the utilities disk
with the Microsoft BASIC II cartridge.  The I/O redirection (batch files and
PRINT command) is permanently disabled in NOCP.DOS

NOWRITE.DOS
NOWRITE is a stripped down DOS with a very low memlo and short load time.
Since it is a high speed version it will read in 2-3 times faster than a non-
high speed version when used with UltraSpeed hardware such as the US Doubler.
Nowrite will run at normal speed when used with non-UltraSpeed drives.  Anytime
you attempt to write with a nowrite version you will get an error (usually
170).  The main use of nowrite is for loading game files.

STANDARD.DOS
This is a SpartaDOS 1.x version without any UltraSpeed features.  The memlo is
about $300 bytes lower than the SPEED.DOS version.  This is a ram resident full
powered DOS.  Use this version for your regular DOS if you don't have a US
Doubler modified 1050 drive and are not using an XL/XE computer.

SPEED.DOS




                                       17







This is STANDARD 1.x version with the UltraSpeed code added.  Use this version
of your regular DOS if you have the US Doubler in a 1050 drive and don't have
an XL/XE computer.


SpartaDOS 2.x Versions
These versions can be 11K or larger in size and use overlays beneath the OS
ROMs in the XL/XE computers, therefore they will only work with the XL/XE
computers.  SpartaDOS 2.x versions are much more powerful than the 1.x
versions, there are many more internal commands and they both support our
UltraSpeed I/O.  If you own an Atari XL/XE computer, it is advisable to use the
2.x versions for maximum benefit.  They give you an extra 4K of usable free
memory from BASIC as well as compatibility with most software 2.x versions can
also read, write and execute files directly from Atari DOS 2 type disks.  Both
SpartaDOS 2.x versions have 12 buffers built in so there is no need for the
BUFS command.  Both are CP versions, the only difference is whether priority is
given to DOS or the Cartridge after boot.  The SpartaDOS 2.x versions are
listed below.

XD23B.DOS
This is the XD type SpartaDOS 2.x version and can only be used with XL or XE
Atari computers.  It is the most powerful DOS available for any 6502 based
computer.  This version has an extended command set, gives more free memory and
is more compatible than the SpartaDOS version 1.x.  XD23B.DOS can read and
write directly to and from other Atari compatible DOS's except Atari DOS 3 and
OSS version 4.  This version recognizes the STARTUP.BAT file when booted and
priority is given to DOS (rather than the cartridge).  For cartridge priority
use the XC version below.

XC23B.DOS
This is the same as XD23B.DOS except AUTORUN.SYS is recognized when booted and
control priority is given to the cartridge.  All other features are the same as
the XD version.  The XC version will give a logon message before it starts
loading the AUTORUN.SYS file.  The BREAK key or RESET will abort the
AUTORUN.SYS file if pressed just after the logon message is displayed.  Control
then goes to the cartridge or DOS if you pressed OPTION and no other cartridge
was installed).  This version can be used just like NOCP.DOS with programs such
as the LOGOMENU program, Atariwriter, Atariartist, etc.  The XC version will
only work with XL/XE computers and it DOES NOT DISABLE the I/O Diversion (Batch
files and PRINT command).  XC DOS also gives you the complete Command Processor
as in the XD version.


__________________________
AINIT Command
Purpose - Causes the drive to write an Atari DOS 2 style format.  This command
is mainly for compatibility with existing software, since SpartaDOS cannot be
copied to and run under this format.

Syntax
AINIT [Dn:]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x




                                       18







Remarks
This will produce an Atari DOS 2 compatible format.  The density is dependent
upon the configuration of the drive as is normal with all Atari DOS 2
implementations.  AINIT is the only internal format command and is supported
with XIO 254.  (see tech notes in manual for details).

NOTE: This command will not produce a format with US sector skew which is
needed for UltraSpeed I/O.  SpartaDOS cannot boot from a disk formatted in this
way either.  Use INIT for SpartaDOS 1.x or XINIT for SpartaDOS 2.x disks.

Example
  AINIT

The display will show:

  FORMAT: Are you sure? Y/N


If you answer yes the drive will go ahead and format the disk with Atari DOS 2
type format.


__________________________
FORMAT Command
Purpose - This command is used to format the disk, create the directory
structure and optionally put DOS on the disk.

Syntax
FORMAT

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
FORMAT will only create version 1.x disks

Remarks
The FORMAT program allows many format densities, gives the user the option to
put DOS on the disk and to give the disk a unique volume name.  Once a disk has
been formatted, DOS cannot be put on the disk without reformatting.  The FORMAT
program does not allow you to change boot defaults or choose many different
SpartaDOS types, it reads the SpartaDOS with defaults from the disk you use as
the SOURCE.

Example
  FORMAT

The first question is whether to write DOS.  If you answered Y then you must
insert a SpartaDOS source disk of your choice into drive 1.  After pressing
RETURN, SpartaDOS is read into memory.  The source can be any of the versions
of SpartaDOS 1.x and the newly formatted disk will retain the same defaults as
the source.
The rest of the prompts are the same as the latter part of the INIT prompts.

Drive to format? (1-4 is valid)
Select number of tracks (usually #1)




                                       19







Select Density?
Volume name (1-8 chars)
UltraSpeed sector skew? (requires US hardware modification for high speed)


__________________________
BOOT Command
Purpose - This command tells a SpartaDOS 2.x formatted disk to boot a
particular program at startup.

Syntax
BOOT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
The DOS loader on the first 3 sectors of each SpartaDOS 2.x formatted disk, can
load and run files in the same manner as a command file.  Normally DOS is
loaded, but actually anything could be loaded as long as it avoids the loader
memory ($2E00-$3180).  To change version 2.x DOS types on a disk, first copy
the new DOS file to the disk, then use the BOOT command to force the new DOS to
execute upon system boot.  To create a binary boot disk, use XINIT and select
no DOS.COPY your binary boot file to the disk, then use the BOOT command which
tells the loader the filename.

Example
  BOOT STAR.BIN

When this disk is booted, it will immediately try to load and run the boot up
file STAR.BIN


__________________________
RAMDISK Commands
With the introduction of the 130XE computer and the AXLON RamPower 128 for the
800, users have discovered new applications for extra memory.  One of the
easiest to use is called a Ramdisk.  This is an electronic simulation of a disk
drive using the extra memory as storage.  The main advantages of this are great
speed and two drive operations using only one physical drive.  The main
disadvantage is that the ram memory is volatile which means that all memory is
lost when the power goes down.

Purpose - These commands install a Ramdisk device (electronic disk) in the
place of a drive.  Since these commands depend on specific hardware, the
correct device must be present or an error will result.  Note: CP version 1.x
allows up to 4 drives and CP version 2.x allows up to 8 drives.

Syntax
RDBASIC Dn: (XL/XE computer with internal BASIC on required)
RD130 Dn: (Atari 130XE computer required)
RDAXLON Dn: (Axlon RamPower 128 in Atari 800 required)

Type and Restrictions




                                       20







External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
RDBASIC and RD130 MUST BE installed under CP version 2.x only

Remarks
The Ramdisk is a simulation of a fast floppy disk.  It is set up in 128 byte
sectors and works with all the standard disk drive commands.  The Ramdisk
handler is installed by entering the appropriate command along with the desired
drive number.  Any drive from 1-8 is valid with CP version 2.x, drives 1-4 are
valid with 1.x.  If there is already a drive in the selected location, the
drive will be deselected (knocked out).  Once installed, all standard drive
commands will work with the Ramdisk.  If a Ramdisk command is given and the
required hardware is not in the system, an English error message will occur.
Note: Do NOT install any one Ramdisk to more than one drive number.

The Atari 130XE computer has 128K of ram.  The upper 64K can be accessed in 16K
banks through an access window between $4000 and $7FFF.  The RD130 command
allows easy access to this ram and sets it up as a 64896 byte electronic disk
(507 free sectors).  This command works with CP version 2.x only.

The BASIC Ramdisk works on all XL/XE computers and provides an extra 8K (7552
bytes) of ram that was not used before (59 free sectors).  This is only usable
while the internal BASIC is installed.  Holding down the OPTION key when
booting or using the BASIC OFF command will destroy this Ramdisk.  The BASIC
Ramdisk area can be used as protected memory, scratch pad storage and other
uses which users will discover as SpartaDOS 2.x becomes familiar to the Atari
community.

The Axlon RamPower is a 128K board made for the Atari 800 which adds eight 16K
banks of ram to the system.  These are seen in a window area from $4000-$7FFF
(similar to the 130XE but switched differently) and are switched through
machine language handlers.  RDAXLON sets the RamPower board up as a 112K
Ramdisk.  Since the RamPower only works with the Atari 800 computer, RDAXLON
will only work with CP version 1.x.

Examples
  RD130 D5:

This installs the Ramdisk as drive #5.  If the computer is not a 130XE, an
error message is generated.

  RDBASIC D2:

The BASIC Ramdisk is installed as drive #2.

  RDAXLON D4:

You now have a 112K Ramdisk as drive #4.

The RD130 Ramdisk may be setup as a utility disk under CP version 2.x with up
to 64K of special utility files.  These could be files like: MEMU.COM,
MENU.HLP, DUMP.COM etc, which you may want to use but not keep on every disk.
A STARTUP.BAT file could be created with the commands:

  RD130 D2:




                                       21







  COPY *.COM D2:

When the computer boots this disk, the Ramdisk is installed as drive #2 then
all command files are copied to the drive #2 Ramdisk where they will remain
until powered down.  All the commands can then be used on any SpartaDOS or
Atari DOS 2 disk inserted into drive 1.

You may want to duplicate some files onto several disks.  Copy the files to the
Ramdisk installed as D2: then use:

  COPY D2:*.* D1:



__________________________
Chapter 6___SUBDIRECTORIES

Subdirectories are an important feature of SpartaDOS, in fact, they were one of
the major reasons for SpartaDOS in the first place.  If you have never had
subdirectories available to you before, you may be somewhat surprised at just
how useful they are.  This chapter describes the commands that directly
manipulate or modify the SpartaDOS directory hierarchy.


__________________________
?DIR Command
Purpose - To show the path to a specified directory.  If no path is given as a
parameter, the current directory path is displayed.

Syntax
?DIR [Dn:][path]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
This command is normally used to show the current directory path.  The path
displayed is the path you would type after a CWD command to get from the MAIN
directory into the directory you are currently in.


__________________________
CREDIR Command
Purpose-This command creates a subdirectory under a specified drive and
directory.

Syntax
CREDIR [Dn:]path

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The directory to be created is the last directory in the path name.  If no path




                                       22







is given, an error will occur.  The path is in the format of NAME1>NAME2>NAME3
and indicates the route from the current directory to the directory to be
created.

Example
  CREDIR D2:UTILITY

This command creates a subdirectory on drive 2 called UTILITY.

  CREDIR GAMES>ARCADE

This command creates a subdirectory, ARCADE, on the default drive under the
pre-existing subdirectory, GAMES.


__________________________
DELDIR Command
Purpose-This command deletes an empty subdirectory from the specified drive.

Syntax
DELDIR[Dn:]path

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The directory to be deleted must be totally empty before it can be deleted and
must be the last directory in the path name.  Note that the MAIN (root)
directory may not be deleted.

Example
  DELDIR GAMES>ARCADE

This command removes the subdirectory called ARCADE under directory GAMES only
if it is empty, otherwise an error results.


__________________________
CWD Command
Purpose - This command changes the current (working) directory on the specified
disk.

Syntax
CWD [Dn:]path

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The current directory is where DOS looks to find files whose names were entered
without specifying which directory they were in.  Also, the current directory
is the base directory for relative pathnames.

Important: when a file is opened for read, the current directory is the first




                                       23







to be scanned for the file, but if it is not there, the main (root) directory
is then scanned for the file.  This is so that one may keep .COM files in the
main directory and be able to access them from a subdirectory.

During DOS initialization, the current directory is reset to point to the main
directory.  Initialization occurs when the RESET key is pressed or when some
application causes an initialization when it loads.

Remember that the current directory is displayed in the header of the expanded
directory listing.

Note that the path can be substituted with < to move backwards in the path one
directory (to the parent directory).

Examples
  CWD<

This command takes you backwards to the previous directory in the path.

  CWD D3:GAMES>ARCADE

This command takes you to the subdirectory called arcade on drive 3 under the
subdirectory of GAMES.


__________________________
TREE Command
Purpose - This command displays all the directory paths found on the disk or
under the specified directory and optionally lists the files found in each
directory in alphabetical order.

Syntax
TREE [Dn:][path] [/F]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The TREE command displays all path names found on the disk when used from the
main directory.  If a path is specified, then all pathnames under that
directory will be displayed.  When used from a subdirectory, TREE will display
all path names from that directory on.  If the /F is specified, then all
filenames in each directory will be displayed in alphabetical order after the
directory path they are in.

Example
  TREE D1:MODEM/F

Subdirectory MODEM is displayed as the root directory and all filenames under
that are displayed, then any subdirectories under MODEM are displayed along
with the filenames under each of those.  This continues until the last
subdirectory and filenames are displayed.






                                       24







__________________________
Chapter 7___DUPLICATION

This chapter describes most of the copy utilities that SpartaDOS provides.
There are quite a few commands because of the different versions of DOS (XCOPY
compared to SPCOPY) and drive configurations.  COPY is much more useful to
those who have two drives or can use one of the RamDisks provided.  Note that
an XCOPY/SPCOPY type of copier is included in the MENU.COM program


__________________________
COPY Command
Purpose - COPY is an extremely powerful utility with many uses as follows.
Copy one or more files from one device to another, and optionally give the new
file a different name.

THIS COMMAND WILL NOT COPY A FILE BETWEEN TWO DISKS USING THE SAME DISK DRIVE.
COPY will copy files to the same disk, however, the new file must have a
different name or the destination directory must be different than the source.
There is no provision to switch disks in the middle of the copy process.  If a
single drive copy is desired, use XCOPY, SPCOPY, DUPDSK or the MENU program.

Under CP version 2.x COPY with the /A option allows appending of 2 files
(adding one file to the end of another).

You may also use COPY to transfer data between any of the other system devices,
ie: the screen editor, printer, keyboard, etc.

Syntax
COPY d[n]:[path>][fname[.ext]] [dn:][path>][fname[.ext]] [/A]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
Can be external in special cases under version 1.x
The /A option is only allowed under CP version 2.x

Remarks
The COPY command is the only command (aside from BUFS in CP version 1.x) that
destroys memory.  Thus, if you are writing a BASIC program, make sure that you
save it before entering the Command Processor and using the COPY command.  The
Ramdisks are useful for saving temporary information.

The first file specified is the source file name.  If none is given, a default
filespec of *.* is assumed which will copy all files.  The device for the
source file must be given.  The second file is the destination.  If no filename
is specified, a default filespec of *.* is assumed, which will copy without
changing names.

You may use wild cards in both the source and destination filenames as well as
in the extensions.  If wild cards are used in the pathnames, the first
directory match will be used.  Multiple directories cannot be copied with one
COPY command.

When using wild cards with the COPY command, the same renaming convention as in




                                       25







the RENAME command is used.  The source filespec is used to find directory
matches, and the destination filespec renames them by overriding characters in
the source name when the destination name has characters other than ? or * in
it.

IMPORTANT: Only the device ID of D: follows this convention since this is the
only device that has directories.  If a device other than D: is used with the
source filespec, then only one file is copied and the source filename is the
source filespec, whereas if copying from the D: device, the source filename is
the filename from the directory that matches the source filespec.

WARNINGS for CP version 1.x ONLY.  In the example:

     COPY E:*.* Dn:*.* or COPY E:

The destination filename is ????????.???  (*.* expanded out) since the editor
is NOT a directory carrying device, therefore, both the source and destination
filespecs are the filename.  When saving a file named ????????.???, the first
entry in the directory is matched AND NO RENAMING PROCESS OCCURS ON FILENAMES
WRITTEN TO THE DIRECTORY.  The end result is a file (called ????????.???) that
is not erasable and one destroyed file (the first one).

In SpartaDOS 1.x, the internal COPY command resides in page 6 of memory.
Occasionally another program might wipe this out and take page 6 for its own
use.  If this has happened, an error 170 will result when entering COPY.  To
continue use of the COPY command without page 6, an external file provision was
built into SpartaDOS.  Use the SAVE command to write the file COPY.COM onto the
disk with the offending programs.  When the COPY command is called, a checksum
is done to determine whether COPY is still intact.  If not, the external file
will replace it.  The format to create this COPY.COM file is:

  SAVE COPY.COM 600 6FF


CP Version 2.x ONLY
When using CP version 2.x the /A option allows the COPY command to append one
file to another.  The first file in the command line will be copied onto the
end of the second line in the command line.  The address header(s) from the
first file will also be copied onto the end of the second file.

The COPY command, aside from the obvious ability to copy and append disk files
can also create batch files, print files on the printer or allow typing
directly to the printer.

Examples
  COPY D:*.PRN P:

This command copies all files from disk with an extension of .PRN to the
printer.

  COPY E: D:INPUT.BAT

This command creates a batch file called INPUT.  When this command is entered,
the screen will clear and you may begin typing lines of text.  When done, a




                                       26







<CTRL 3> will signal the end of the file from the editor and the data will be
saved to the disk file.

  COPY E: P:

This example may be used for sending initialization sequences to the printer.
The data you type will get printed on the printer.

  COPY GAME2 GAME1/A

This example (only allowed under CP version 2.x) will append the file GAME2
onto the end of the file GAME1 on the default drive.  If, before the command
was executed, GAME1 was a 4000 byte file and GAME2 was a 2000 byte file, after
execution GAME1 will be a 6000 byte file.


__________________________
SPCOPY Command
Purpose - This command is used for single or dual drive file transfers between
SpartaDOS and or Atari DOS 2 compatible formats with few restrictions on
density and number of tracks.  This is the way to convert Atari DOS 2 files to
SpartaDOS or the reverse of this (for CP version 1.x).  Since translation is
already built into CP version 2.x, use the smaller XCOPY with that version of
SpartaDOS.

Syntax
SPCOPY

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
XCOPY is suggested under CP version 2.x

Remarks
This utility program allows single or dual drive file transfers to or from
SpartaDOS.  SPCOPY is menu driven and the screen format is easy to follow.  The
screen is divided into four windows as follows:

TOP       This window displays your path and filespec for your SOURCE filenames
          and the path of the destination directory.  NOTE: no file renaming is
          performed so the *.* on the destination is unnecessary.

UPPER RT  This window displays the drive numbers selected for the source and
          destination disks.

LOWER RT  This window displays the command keys (and their function) along with
          the prompts used by this utility program.

LEFT      This window displays the selected directory from the disk currently
          being read.  You select files to copy by tagging them in this
          window.

Example
  SPCOPY





                                       27







The menu appears on the screen.  The default setting is a single drive copy to
and from the main directory.  With the source disk in the drive, press START to
get the file list.  The directory is then displayed at the left with the arrow
pointing to the current file.  Press the SPACE BAR to TAG the file or SELECT to
move on to the next.  Once all the desired files have been tagged, press START
to Copy The Files.  You will be prompted to swap disk as necessary.

SpartaDOS 1.x restriction: Have different or unique volume names for each disk
since SPCOPY reads the volume name to determine if a different disk is in the
drive.

SYSTEM I/O ERROR: This is a general purpose error message given by SPCOPY when
something goes wrong, ie. inserting the wrong disk when swapping source and
destination, copying between 2 disks with the same volume name etc.


__________________________
XCOPY Command
purpose - This command is used for single or dual drive file transfers between
SpartaDOS and/or Atari DOS 2 compatible formats (with few restrictions on
density and number of tracks).  This is intended to be used with SpartaDOS 2.x
since Atari DOS 2 format is recognized by the DOS (SPCOPY has Atari DOS 2 built
in, XCOPY does not).  If you are doing single or dual drive SpartaDOS to
SpartaDOS copies, then this command is better than SCOPY even for version 1.x
usage.

Syntax
XCOPY

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
SPCOPY is suggested under CP version 1.x

Remarks
This command is identical to SPCOPY except for the following differences:

    1. The Atari DOS 2 handlers are not built in.  XCOPY assumes that the DOS
       can handle an Atari formatted disk if necessary.

    2. The file tagging has been improved so that you can see 4 files ahead of
       where you are currently tagging.  It scrolls the files before you reach
       the bottom.

    3. 100 files can be handled (SPCOPY can only hold 50 files).

    4. SPCOPY re-initializes DOS at the beginning of each read and write pass,
       XCOPY never re-initializes DOS.  This means that XCOPY is highly
       susceptible to volume names being the same (on version 1.x disks in
       particular).  PLEASE GIVE ALL YOUR DISKS DIFFERENT VOLUME NAMES!


__________________________
DUPDSK
Purpose - To duplicate an entire SpartaDOS disk (except for volume name), using




                                       28







one or two drives.  IMPORTANT: THE NUMBER OF TRACKS AND THE DENSITY ON THE
SOURCE AND DESTINATION DISKS MUST BE THE SAME OR AN ERROR WILL RESULT.

Syntax
DUPDSK

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
DUPDSK is a disk copy program which will duplicate an entire SpartaDOS disk
including subdirectories while using one or two drives.  This command WILL NOT
FORMAT OR TRANSFER THE DISK VOLUME NAME.  These must be created with a format
program (INIT, XINIT or FORMAT) since there are many possible variations in
format.  Also, the destination format must be the SAME FORMAT TYPE as the
source format, and the destination disk should NOT HAVE ANY FILES on it, as
they will be OVERWRITTEN!

Example
  DUPDSK

This command comes up with prompts for source and destination drives with 1
through 8 being valid drive numbers.  You are then prompted to 'Insert Source
disk?' if a single drive copy or to 'Insert Source and Dest. Disks?' if a two
drive copy.  Press any key (except ESC) to start the duplication and repeat as
necessary if swapping disk in a single drive.



__________________________
CHAPTER 8__MAINTENANCE

This chapter contains the descriptions of commands used for erasing files,
renaming files and changing the volume name.


__________________________
ERASE Command
Purpose - This command allows you to erase one or more files from a disk and
the specified disk directory.  If no path is specified, then the file is
deleted from the current directory.  Wild cards can be used in the filespec.

Syntax
ERASE [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
You may use wild cards in the file spec, however, use caution as one command
can erase many files.  If no filespec is given, an error will occur.  Also, if
a filespec of '*.*' is given, then all files will be erased and NO WARNINGS
will be given.  Note that only files will be erased, any subdirectories will be
left intact.  To restore erased files, see the UNERASE command.  The UNERASE




                                       29







command MUST be used before any more data is written to that disk or you may
lose your data!

Note: Do not be alarmed if the free sector count seems off by one sector when
copying, then erasing files.  The directory and file maps are not assigned to
specific sectors and will grow and shrink as necessary - but not always
identically to a previous size or location.


__________________________
UNERASE Command
Purpose - This command allows you to restore one or more files that were
previously erased.  If no path is specified, then UNERASE restores the files in
the current directory.  Wild cards can be used in the filespec.  If a file
can't be restored, UNERASE will indicate why.

Syntax
UNERASE [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
Caution: use a 1985 or newer UNERASE.COM version only!

Remarks
This command will restore files that have been accidentally erased, but only if
they are still intact.  If new files have been created since the desired file
was last erased, then part of the erased file likely has been overwritten and
therefore lost forever!

Warning: UNERASE.COM files distributed before the release of SpartaDOS 2.x
(dated in 1984), will totally destroy a CP version 2.x formatted diskette!

Example
  UNERASE *.*

UNERASE will map the current directory and then display the names of the files
being restored as it encounters them.

NOTE: Occasionally the free sector count is decreased by one after using
UNERASE.  The reason for this is that the UNERASE command will increase the
size of the directory file if the last sector is close to being full.


__________________________
RENAME Command
Purpose - This command allows you to change the name of one or more files.

Syntax
RENAME [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks




                                       30







Wild cards can be used in both filespecs.  A device and path may only be
specified on the first file name (the old name filespec).  Filenames must be
specified for both source and destination names, otherwise, an error will
occur.  The rules for wild carding are described in Chapter 4.

Example
  RENAME FILE FILES

This command changes the name of the file on the default drive and default
directory from FILE to FILES


__________________________
CHVOL Command
Purpose - This command is used to change the volume name on a diskette.

Syntax
CHVOL [Dn:]vname

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
CHVOL is used to change the volume name on a diskette.  This can be useful if
you change your mind on a volume label after it has been initialized.  Note
that you MAY NOT include spaces in the volume name, but any other character is
legal.  ONLY the first 8 characters will be used for the volume name.



__________________________
CHAPTER 9___PROTECTION

Protection is an important feature in any DOS.  It is quite easy to erase files
using wild cards and not realize that the file you didn't want erased was lost.
To solve this problem, a file protect status may be set on any file.  If on,
that file may not be erased until it is 'unprotected'.  Also, a disk lock
feature has been added which acts much like a write protect tab (or notch on 8
inch drives).


File Protection
File protection is accomplished by use of the PROTECT and UNPROTECT commands.
These commands set or clear a bit in the file status byte.  If set, that file
may not be modified in any way.  The following give the command descriptions.


__________________________
PROTECT Command
Purpose - This command protects (locks) files from accidental erasure.

Syntax
PROTECT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]





                                       31







Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 2.x
SpartaDOS 1.x does NOT recognize the protect status.

Remarks
PROTECT will help prevent accidental erasure of specified files.  A write or
erase attempt to a protected file will result in the message 'File protected'
or error 164 from BASIC.  Unlike Atari DOS 2, the RENAME function is allowed on
protected files.  Protected files will have an asterisk (*) before the file
name when executing the DIRS command.


__________________________
UNPROTECT Command
Purpose - This command unprotects files to allow you to erase or modify the
files.

Syntax
UNPROTECT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x
SpartaDOS 1.x does NOT recognize the protect status.

Remarks
This is the reverse of the PROTECT command.  Files must be UNPROTECTED in order
to be modified or erased.


Disk Protection
SpartaDOS version 2.x has two commands that allow you to protect or unprotect
on a whole diskette basis.  This is similar to putting a write protect sticker
on the diskette.  However, there is one major difference, a write locked disk
may be written to by programs that do not use SpartaDOS file handling.  The
XINIT, INIT and FORMAT programs are several examples.


__________________________
LOCK Command 
Purpose - This command locks the diskette to prevent accidental erasure.  It is
similar to the physical write protect tab which is put on the disk, but is
strictly a software lock and only works when using SpartaDOS 2.x

Syntax
LOCK [Dn:]

Type and restrictions
Internal under CP versions 2.x
SpartaDOS 1.x version does NOT recognize the protect status.

Remarks
The LOCK command has been added to SpartaDOS to allow write protection of the
SpartaDOS 2.x diskette.  The lock byte is physically written to the diskette
where it will remain until the UNLOCK command is given.  The status of LOCK ON




                                       32







or OFF can be checked with the CHKDSK command.  When trying to write to a
locked diskette while in SpartaDOS 2.x the message 'Disk write locked' will be
displayed.  Under BASIC it will be an error 169 ($A9).


__________________________
UNLOCK Command
Purpose - This command unlocks a SpartaDOS 2.x formatted disk (See LOCK).

Syntax
UNLOCK [Dn:]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under SpartaDOS 2.x
SpartaDOS 1.x does NOT recognize the protect status.

Remarks
This command updates the SpartaDOS 2.x diskette to allow writing to it.  UNLOCK
is the reverse of the LOCK command.  After executing the UNLOCK command, CHKDSK
will show 'Write lock: OFF'.



__________________________
Chapter 10___LOGOMENU-STEP BY STEP

Creating a binary loader
Many Atari users have a collection of binary files, many of which are games.
For this, special versions of DOS (NOCP and XC23B) and a menu program
(LOGOMENU.SYS) have been created to load and run these files.  Here are some of
the advantages of using the NOCP or XC23B DOS in conjunction with
LOGOMENU.SYS:

   a) File protection - Since there is no Command Processor in NOCP (similar to
   using DOS.SYS with no DUP.SYS in Atari DOS 2) it becomes difficult to
   accidentally erase or write over a file without first booting up another
   version of SpartaDOS.  Also, since LOGOMENU.SYS is only a load and run type
   of menu that you can't exit aside from rebooting, only reading from the disk
   is performed.

   b) UltraSpeed - Both versions of DOS run in UltraSpeed mode as long as your
   drive hardware supports it and you select UltraSpeed (US Doubler) sector
   skew when formatting.  Otherwise, it will run at standard speed.

   c) Size and organization - LOGOMENU.SYS can handle up to 16 directories each
   with up to 64 files.  It is arranged so that the SELECT key toggles the page
   of files within a subdirectory to be displayed, and the OPTION key toggles
   the subdirectory currently being displayed.  When you choose a file to load
   and run, simply press the letter of the file.

   d) Simple operation - A doublewide menu will display during operation.  You
   press the letter or letters that correspond to the file and it loads and
   runs.  To see more pages of files, use the SELECT and OPTION keys as
   described in (c).  Once a disk of files has been created (as to be




                                       33







   described), no other steps need be taken other than turning the system on
   and selecting the file to run.

   e) Compatibility - NOCP has a memlo about 1/4K above that of Atari DOS 2 and
   XC23B has a memlo about 4K below that of Atari DOS 2.  All games that run
   under an Atari DOS 2 type menu should run under this menu.

   f) Hidden files - If you protect a file (by the PROTECT command), that file
   will NOT show up in the menu.  If you protect a subdirectory, that entire
   directory will not be included in the menu.  This way you may put several
   categories (subdirectories) on one disk, but only allow certain categories
   to be displayed when used.

   h) Deselects BASIC - LOGOMENU automatically deselects the internal BASIC on
   XL/XE computers, so there is no need to hold down the OPTION key when
   booting your LOGOMENU disk.


Construction for non XL/XE computers

Initialize a disk with NOCP.DOS using INIT.

This is a version 1.x type SpartaDOS.  Insert a disk with the files INIT.COM
and NOCP.DOS into your drive and boot up.  If a batch file runs and pauses,
press RESET to get the D1: prompt.  Type INIT and then press RETURN.  The DOS
menu will come up.  Press the corresponding number for NOCP.  After it reads
the NOCP file it asks to modify defaults?, press N for no.

Then, drive to format is usually drive one, tracks will be one for Atari
drives, the other selections are for the ATR8000 and similar peripherals.  The
density menu gives a choice of 1) single (90K), 2) double (180K) and 3)
enhanced (130K).  810s only get number 1, 1050s can choose 1 or 3 and 1050s
with the US Doubler can choose any of the densities.

The volume name should be unique to each disk.  You might want to use numbers
or letters or both, as it is intended to help you keep track of your disk.  US
Doubler owners will type Y (yes) for UltraSpeed sector skew, everybody else
will type N (no).

Now insert the disk to be formatted into the drive specified and press any key
to begin.  After the disk is formatted, it is a good time to repeat the
procedure on any other disk you might want to initialize as games disk.

COPY LOGOMENU.SYS TO THE MAIN DIRECTORY ON EACH OF YOUR NEWLY INITIALIZED DISKS
AND RENAME IT TO AUTORUN.SYS

Find a disk with the file LOGOMENU.SYS on it.  You can use SPCOPY, XCOPY or
COPY if you have two drives.  After the file has been copied to the destination
disk, RENAME it to AUTORUN.SYS.  Example: RENAME LO*.* AUTORUN.*  Note: This
will be the only file (other than subdirectory names) stored in the MAIN
directory on your games disks.

CREATE SUBDIRECTORIES FOR FILE STORAGE ON EACH OF THE DESTINATION DISKS.  ALL
FILES MUST BE STORED IN SUBDIRECTORIES, NOT THE MAIN DIRECTORY.




                                       34







Use the CREDIR command.  You may only want to use one subdirectory on the disk
if there will only be a few files on it.  Name subdirectories to help
organization (ie. SPACE for space games, MAZE for maze games etc).  Example:
CREDIR MAZE.  This writes a subdirectory called MAZE on the disk under the MAIN
directory.

COPY THE FILES TO YOUR NEW DISKS UNDER THE DESIRED SUBDIRECTORIES.

Use SPCOPY or XCOPY to copy the files.  Under the destination file name you
must put the subdirectory path in the proper format.  Example: MAZE>*.*  This
will only work if the subdirectory named MAZE is on the destination disk.
Note: Do NOT copy any of your game files to the MAIN directory.  AUTORUN.SYS is
the only file allowed under MAIN.

BOOT THE NEW GAMES DISK AND TRY IT OUT!

SELECT scrolls the directory display up to show additional filenames if any.
OPTION changes subdirectories if more than one is on the disk.  RESET reloads
the directory.  This is helpful in the event that you change disks in the
drive.  There should not be any cartridges installed although it is OK to leave
the R-Time 8 cartridge installed.  Internal BASIC will be automatically
deselected in the XL/XE computers.

Notice: The multicolor symbol displayed is the logo property of Atari Corp.

TROUBLE SHOOTING:
The display comes up with READ or MEMO PAD/DIAGNOSTICS - NOCP.DOS needs a file
called AUTORUN.SYS in order to initialize properly.  Check MAIN directory for
AUTORUN.SYS.  Also, the BASIC cartridge must not be installed.

The display comes up with ERROR: NO SUBDIRECTORIES FOUND - you must have at
least one subdirectory on the disk.

The display comes up but doesn't show any filenames - There are no files stored
under the subdirectory.  Boot up a STANDARD or SPEED version of DOS, then put
the games disk in and check the directories.  DIR will show the MAIN directory
and DIR MAZE> will show a subdirectory called MAZE.


Construction for XL/XE computer ONLY

INITIALIZE A DISK WITH XC23B.DOS USING XINIT.

Insert a disk with XINIT and the 2.x versions of DOS into drive one and boot up
the system.  Then follow the instructions for construction with NOCP except you
must substitute select XC23B instead of NOCP.  Also the 2.x versions show up as
filenames under the MAIN directory, the 1.x versions remain hidden from view.
The rest of the instructions are the same.

When trouble shooting 2.x version, you may also get the D1: prompt when either
RESET or BREAK is pressed, if there is no AUTORUN.SYS file in the MAIN
directory, then either READY or the D1: prompt will appear.






                                       35







__________________________
Chapter 11___MENU Operation

Do you still prefer the Atari DOS 2 menu over a Command Processor driven DOS?
Well, SpartaDOS has a menu program too.  But be warned; don't expect it to even
resemble that of Atari DOS 2s menu.  I suggest that you run MENU now and see
what it looks like BEFORE you continue reading the command description.  The
description should make more sense once you know what the display looks like.


__________________________
MENU Command
Purpose - This command gives you most of the features of the Command Processor
but in a menu form.  It is capable of single and multiple file functions.

Syntax
MENU [R][n]
Type and Restrictions
External on CP version 2.x

Remarks
If you type 'R' on the command line, the MENU program will remain resident.
This means that you may go to BASIC and then type DOS to re-enter the menu
program.  If 'R' is not specified, MENU will not be able to be re-entered once
you exit it.

There is a help file (MENU.HLP) MENU uses when you ask for online help.  The
'n' parameter sets the drive that this help file will be on.  This gives you
the ability to load the file into a ram and use it from the menu program.  If
'n' is not specified, drive one is assumed.  Note: if you specify both 'R' and
an 'n', do not put a space between them (ie. R5).  The operation of MENU
follows in the next section


The MENU Operation
Many of the MENU Functions (ie. copy, erase, protect, etc.) can do the
operation on many files at once.  This is done by tagging the files you want
the operation to be performed on.  The following keystrokes are used:

up arrow      This moves the select cursor to the file above the current.  If
              at the top, the cursor will move to the last file in the list.

down arrow    This moves the select cursor to the next file in the list.  If at
              the bottom, the cursor will move to the first file.

space         This toggles the tagged status of the file.  The file is in
              inverse video if it is currently tagged.

The next step is to select the command or function you wish to perform.  For
this you must get the command cursor (in the bottom boxes) on the correct
command.  The commands are arranged in 5 banks of 5 commands.  The following
keystrokes select the command:

OPTION        This selects the next bank of commands.  The cursor remains in




                                       36







              the same position.  There are 5 banks in all.

SELECT        This moves the cursor to the next command (to the right).  If at
              the end, it moves to the first command in that bank of commands.

right arrow   This is identical to the SELECT key.

left arrow    This moves the cursor to the last command (to the left).  If at
              the beginning, it moves to the last command in that bank of
              commands.

1..5          The number keys 1 through 5 select a bank of commands.  This
              gives an alternative to the OPTION key and allows you faster
              access to the row you want.

A..Z          The letter keys move the cursor to a particular command.  This
              allows you to memorize letters for the most used functions for
              faster access.  An attempt has been made to make the letters
              correspond to the function.

HELP key      This gives you a small description of the command the cursor is
              on.  To restore the screen after HELP, press the RETURN key
              (actually any key will work).

Once you have selected a function, you may perform it by pressing the RETURN or
START keys (they are functionally identical).  A description of each command
follows.  The corresponding letter command is given in parenthesis following
the command name.

?Files (F)    This command does a directory of a drive that you specify.  This
              then becomes the source drive for copy and all other functions
              (that pertain) operate on the selected drive.  When asked 'Which
              drive?' answer with a drive number or RETURN for drive one.

Copy (C)      This command will copy all tagged files, or the file the cursor
              is on if no files are tagged.  When asked 'Dest Drive?', enter
              the destination drive number of the copy or RETURN for drive one.
              Next enter the path name of the destination directory or RETURN
              for the MAIN directory.  When prompted to insert disks, press
              RETURN for the copy to continue.

Erase (E)     This command will erase all tagged files, or the file the cursor
              is on if no files are tagged.  No prompts are given so be
              careful.

Rename (R)    This command renames the file the cursor is on to a name you
              specify.  When asked 'Rename to?', enter the new name and
              RETURN.

Exit (Q)      This command exits the menu program and enters the Command
              Processor.  Caution must be taken when a cartridge is also
              enabled.  Read the Other Notes section at the end of this chapter
              CAREFULLY.





                                       37







RunCar (B)    This command exits the menu program and enters a cartridge if it
              is enabled.  Caution must be taken when a cartridge enabled.
              Read the 'Other Notes' section again.

Load (L)      This command loads the file the cursor is currently on.  The file
              must be a binary file.  The screen will be cleared before the
              file is loaded.  The standard Atari DOS 2 INIT and RUN vectors
              are used.  Once the file has run, press RETURN to re-enter the
              menu program (if the file doesn't take over).

Save (S)      This command saves a binary file.  You must enter the filename
              (and path), the start address and the end address as requested.

Run (J)       This command jumps to a machine language program.  You may either
              specify an address, or press RETURN.  In the latter case, the
              beginning address of the last file LOADed will be used.  The
              screen is cleared before the machine language program is entered.
              If that program allows, you may press RETURN to re-enter the menu
              program.

Exec/P (G)    This command loads the file the cursor is currently on.  But
              before it loads, you can give a command line to that file.  This
              is how to use external commands under the MENU program.  The
              screen is cleared before the file is run, and when done, you may
              press RETURN to re-enter the menu program.

Xinit (I)     This command loads the XINIT external command and runs it.  This
              is how to format SpartaDOS version 2.x disks.  To exit the XINIT
              program and re-enter MENU, press the ESCape key.

AInit (A)     This command formats a disk in Atari DOS 2 format.  Enter the
              drive number when asked (RETURN for drive one) and then any key
              when ready to format.

?Mem (M)      This command displays the contents of MEMLO and MEMHI.  Press
              RETURN to restore the display.

ChkDsk (Z)    This command performs the CHKDSK command.  Press RETURN to
              restore the display.

Help (H)      This command provides help on the keys used to move the cursor
              and select a command.  Press RETURN to restore the display.

Prot (P)      This command will protect all tagged files, or the file the
              cursor is on if no files are tagged.

UnProt (U)    This command will unprotect all tagged files, or the file the
              cursor is on if no files are tagged.

Lock (K)      This command write locks the disk in the current drive.

UnLock (O)    This command write unlocks the disk in the current drive.

Xfer (X)      This command is much like the COPY command in the Command




                                       38







              Processor except it does not do multiple files.  You will be
              prompted for a source file and a destination file.  Make sure to
              include the device names (ie. D2:).  The screen is cleared before
              the copy.  After it's done, press the RETURN key to restore the
              display.

?Dir (V)      This command displays the current directory path.  To restore the
              display, press return.

>Dir (T)      This command displays the directory pointed to by the cursor.
              This is now the current directory.

<Dir (Y)      This command displays the parent directory.  This is now the
              current directory.

CreDir (N)    This command creates a new subdirectory.  Just enter the name of
              the new directory.

DelDir (D)    This command deletes the directory pointed at by the cursor.  No
              prompt is given (but the directory must be empty anyway before it
              may be deleted).


Other Notes About the MENU Program!
Some of the commands invalidate user memory (destroy BASIC programs etc).  They
are as follows: Copy, XInit, Load, Xfer and Exec/P.

While a cartridge is enabled, care must be taken to insure that the Command
Processor will not interfere with the MENU program.  When you enter BASIC, a
flag (called WARMFLG) indicates whether the contents of memory is valid.  Both
the Command Processor and the MENU program keep their own copies of this flag,
but they may differ.  There is no problem if JUST using the Command Processor
OR the MENU program, but there are some scenarios you MUST try to avoid when
using both.

1. You load the menu (MENU R), enter BASIC (option RunCar), write a BASIC
   program (or load one), type DOS (you are now in the MENU), perform a memory
   destructive command (like Copy), enter the Command Processor (option Exit),
   and type CAR.  In this example, the Command Processor never knew that memory
   was destroyed.

2. You load the menu (MENU R), enter BASIC (option RunCar), write a BASIC
   program (or load one), type DOS (you are now in the MENU), enter the Command
   Processor (option Exit), perform a memory destructive command (like COPY)
   and press RESET.  In this example, the MENU program did not realize that
   memory was destroyed and RESET used MENU's copy of WARMFLG.

IMPORTANT: IF YOU ENTER A CARTRIDGE THROUGH A COMMAND, THE PROGRAM THAT YOU
ENTERED FROM WILL UPDATE WARMFLG.  IF YOU ENTER BECAUSE OF A RESET, MENU WILL
UPDATE WARMFLG.








                                       39







__________________________
CHAPTER 12___TIME AND DATE SUPPORT

Have you ever found yourself frustrated because you're not sure which file is
the latest version of a program you wrote the day before (or even last year)?
Well, for those who answered yes, SpartaDOS offers a solution to this problem.
All versions of SpartaDOS support file time and date stamping, which allows you
to know exactly when you saved a particular file.  You need to know some more
commands in order to display the current time and date, to set a new time and
date and to update the time and date in a file.  In this chapter, all the
commands necessary shall be given.


TO ACTIVATE TIME and DATE CLOCK
SpartaDOS has a few memory locations dedicated to holding the current time and
date.  When you boot the system, these locations contain a default time of
3:59:00pm and a data of 1/1/84.  Unless something is done to change this, all
files that you save will be tagged with this default value (try saving a file
from BASIC before you install the clock).  There are two types of clocks
available with Sparta; one is the R-Time 8 cartridge which does not need to be
set (unless for daylight savings etc).  The other type is a software clock that
needs to be set every time you boot the system.  To install a clock simply type
TD (for R-Time 8 cartridge) or TIME.  This will link a small program into the
Atari that keeps the current time and date displayed.  The display actually
adds an extra line at the top of the screen, which will remain even in BASIC,
as long as the BASIC programs do not modify the deferred VBLANK vector used.
The clock also updates the memory locations within SpartaDOS so that when you
save a file, the time and date displayed will appear in the directory along
with the new file.  Note: TIME, TD and XTD are all relocatable, which means
they load in above MEMLO, and then move MEMLO just above their program area.


TO SET TIME and DATE CLOCK
Normally you will not need to set the R-Time 8 clock, since it keeps time while
the computer is off.  But, if you don't have the R-Time 8, you will need to set
the software clock (TIME) every time the system is booted.  TIME is a simple
counter that uses the vertical blank interrupt to keep time.  Once the correct
time has been set (by the SET command), it will continue to operate like the R-
Time 8 (TD) until the computer is turned off.  For instructions on how to set
the R-Time 8 or the software clock, refer to the SET and TSET command
descriptions that follow in this chapter.

Note: The R-Time 8 cartridge is a very accurate, crystal based timing device
which works on both 60Hz and 50Hz systems.  The software clock installed with
the TIME command is not very accurate and will usually lose about 1 minute each
day.


__________________________
TIME Command
Purpose - To display the time and date at the top of the screen and to install
the time function into DOS.  The X parameter turns the time and data display
off.  Similar to the TD command but for use without the R-Time 8.





                                       40







Syntax
TIME [X]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
If only TIME is entered, the time and date line will appear with the current
time according to DOS.  If TIME is already on, then nothing happens.  If the X
parameter is entered, the time and date display is turned off but the clock
stays installed.  To change the time and date see the SET command.  To access
this clock in your BASIC programs, see appendix D.

NOTE: This command patches itself in the initialization vector and is
reinitialized with every RESET.  The time and date routine stays in memory and
moves MEMLO up.  If TIME X is entered, the display is turned off but the module
still resides in memory.

NOTE: TIME patches itself into the deferred VBLANK vector.  During disk I/O the
time will move sluggishly since it is doing CRITICAL I/O, but the time will
quickly catch up when the disk operations are done.


__________________________
SET Command
Purpose - This command allows the user to set the time and date after
installing the clock with the TIME command.

Syntax
SET [mm/dd/yy] [hh/mm/ss]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
If no parameters are specified, then the program will ask for the time and
date, otherwise, the time and date specified on the command line will be used.
If using our R-Time 8 with battery backup, the TSET command must be used.

Example
  SET

Since no parameters were specified, the prompt showing the current data and
asking for a new date appears.  Type in the new data using slashes as
delimiters (5/12/84).  When asked to enter the time, repeat the above steps
using 24 hour time (13/01 results in 1:01:xxpm, 1 results in 1:xx:xxam).
NOTE: xx in time and date indicates the standard default that was in the number
location before SET.

  SET 12/10/84 21/12

This command line sets the date at 12/10/84 and the time to 9:12xxpm.  Notice
that we use slashes as delimiters in the command line.  Do NOT ever use colons
in a SET or TSET command line or unpredictable things will happen.




                                       41







__________________________
TD Command
Purpose - Used with R-Time 8 cartridge to install the hardware clock and
display the time and date on the first line.  The X parameter will turn the
time and date display off but keep the clock installed.

Syntax
TD [X]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
If TD is entered and the R-Time 8 is present in the right (Atari 800 only) or
left slot, the current time and date will appear on the top display line.  TD
uses the interrupt vectors to read the R-Time 8 60 times a second and update
the display every second.  If the R-Time 8 is not installed then an error
message is displayed.  If the X parameter is entered, the time and date display
is turned off.  To change the time and date in the R-Time 8 use the TSET
command.

The R-Time 8 is our real time clock calendar cartridge with battery backup.  It
can be used in either cartridge slot with any 8 bit Atari computer including
the new XE line.  When using batch files with the TD command, it will boot up
with the correct time and date without operator input.  No cartridge memory is
used by this device so it can be left in the slot even when not used.  The R-
Time 8 has an extension socket in the top so you can use it with another
cartridge in the XL/XE computers.  

NOTE: The TD command patches itself into the initialization vector and is re-
initialized with every RESET.  The time and date routine stays in memory and
moves MEMLO up.  If TD X is entered, the display is turned off but the module
still resides in memory.

NOTE: TD patches itself into the deferred VBLANK vector.  During disk I/O the
time will move sluggishly since it is doing CRITICAL I/O, but the time will
catch up when the disk operations are done.


__________________________
XTD Command
Purpose - Used with R-Time 8 to load the time and date into the system when you
do not want the time and date display.

Syntax
XTD

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2x.

Remarks
If XTD is entered and the R-Time 8 is present in the right or left slot, the
current time and date will be loaded into the system but not displayed.  This
command uses less memory than TD and is used with programs which don't like TD




                                       42







displayed on the top line.  As with TD, XTD uses the interrupt vectors to read
the R-Time 8 60 times a second and update the display every second.  If the R-
Time 8 cartridge is not installed or not working then an error message will be
displayed.  To change the time and date in the R-Time 8, use the TSET command.

NOTE: This command patches itself in the initialization vector and is re-
initialized with every RESET.  The time and date routine stays in memory and
moves MEMLO up.


__________________________
TSET Command
Purpose - This command allows the user to set the time and date in the R-Time 8
cartridge (see TD command).

Format
TSET [mm/dd/yy] [hh/mm/ss]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
If no parameters are specified, then the program will ask for the time and
date, otherwise, the time and date specified on the command line will be used.
Be sure to install the clock cartridge first with either TD or XTD.

Example
  TSET

Since no parameters were specified, the prompt showing the current data and
asking for a new date appears.  Type in the new date using slashes as
delimiters (5/12/84).  When asked to enter the time, repeat the above steps
using 24 hour time (13/01 results in 1:01:xxpm, 1 results in 1:xx:xxam).

NOTE: xx in time and date indicates the standard default that was in the number
location before SET.

  TSET 12/10/84 21/12

This command line sets the R-Time 8 cartridge date to 12/10/84 and the time to
9:12:xxpm.  Notice we use slashes as delimiters in the command line.  Do NOT
ever use colons in a SET or TSET command line or unpredictable things will
happen.


__________________________
CHTD Command
Purpose - This utility command is used to change a files time and date stamp.

Syntax
CHTD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x




                                       43







Remarks
CHTD is used to change or correct the time and date stamp on a file.  This can
be useful for files which come from a DOS disk which doesn't support time and
date stamping or when using a program which won't allow one of the clocks to be
installed.  This command takes the current system clock time and date (changed
with SET or TSET, installed with TIME, TD or XTD) and writes it to the files
which match the filespec.  Wild cards are supported.

Example
  CHTD D:*.*

This takes the current time and date and writes it to all files within the
current directory on the default disk.



__________________________
Chapter 13___COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT

SpartaDOS supports several RS232 interfaces, included in SpartaDOS are the
handlers for the ATR8000 serial port and the Atari 850 interface.  Though
handlers for other serial interfaces (ie. R:Link) are not included in
SpartaDOS, they should still work if used from SpartaDOS (as long as they
relocate properly).  With any of these interfaces along with the correct
handler and MODEM program, you may dial up BBS's or use a direct interface to
other computers, etc.


MODEM or Terminal programs
The RS232 device handlers link themselves into the system much like any Atari
DOS does, but once it has linked itself in, there is no indication that
anything has happened - of course something has, or it wouldn't exist.  The
point is, a terminal program (or MODEM program) is also needed to communicate
to external devices.  A MODEM program is basically a program that concurrently
copies characters from K: to R: (what you type gets sent out the RS232 line),
from R: to E: (what comes in through the RS232 line gets displayed) and
optionally echo K: to E: (echo keystrokes to your screen) or echo R: to R:
(Full Duplex mode).

NOTE: K:, E: and R: are device identifiers on the Atari for the Keyboard,
SCREEN Editor and the RS232 device respectively.


Communicating Through Phone Lines
A MODEM is required if you want to communicate with another computer (or a BBS)
through a phone line.  In this case the MODEM translates the RS232 signals (ie.
from the ATR8000, 850 interface, etc) into sound that passes through the phone
lines and vice versa.  The computer (or BBS) at the other end of the line has a
similar set up.  Its MODEM converts sound back into RS232 signals, thus two
modems at both ends of a phone line act as though you ran a cable from your
interface to the other computers interface.







                                       44







Two Modes of RS232 Handler Operation
Most Atari RS232 handlers operate in two modes.  The simplest is Block Mode
which stores data until a buffer fills.  This results in normal SIO (serial
Input and Output) operation, which means data is sent and received much in the
same manner as in the disk interface.  The problem with this method is that you
can't send and receive at the same time.  A solution to this is called
concurrent I/O, which directly links the RS232 lines to the Atari SIO lines.
The Atari is interrupted when a character has been received and places it in a
buffer.  When the Atari is ready to send a character, it immediately sends it
through the SIO line.  Block Mode is rarely used on the Atari since it does not
allow smooth operation (responses can be disjointed), but Concurrent Mode also
has a major drawback, operations that use the SIO can't be performed while in
Concurrent Mode.  MODEM programs solve this problem by switching in and out of
Concurrent Mode when doing disk drive access.  The ATR8000 handler also solves
this problem by doing the same thing, but the switching is invisible to even
the MODEM program.  Who cares, right?  Well, for those who have ATR8000s, try
this:

  AT_RS232
  PRINT R:
  -R: (note: make sure remote is at 300 baud)

This sequence allows a remote device to take control of your Atari.  Of course
your MODEMS must first be communicating, but the remote device actually has
access to your disk files (and can type commands just as you would).  There are
a few hitches with this that make it unpractical (ie. BASIC resets the audio
registers if entered, there is no remote RESET or BREAK ability, and direct
screen access programs won't work, etc).  One thing that might be useful is
sending ASCII disk files between computers without any special MODEM program.


__________________________
RS232 Commands
Purpose - To load the RS232 handler for communications

Syntax
RS232   or
AT_RS232

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The RS232 command is used with the Atari 850 interface module to boot the RS232
handler.  This command can be used as part of a batch file for automatic
loading.  Unlike Atari DOS 2 (without MEM.SAV), you can go to BASIC then
SpartaDOS and back to BASIC without rebooting RS232.  AT_RS232 is the handler
for the ATR8000.  No 850 interface is needed with it.  AT_RS232 is a concurrent
only handler though it is intelligent in that it enables and disables
concurrent mode automatically as needed for disk access.

Example
  RS232





                                       45







With the 850 module connected properly and powered up, you will hear the
familiar beep over your monitor or TV speaker which tells you the handler was
successfully booted.


__________________________
PORT Command
Purpose - To set speed, word size, stop bits, translation, input and output
parity and EOL parameters for RS232 communications

Syntax
PORT [path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
PORT sends a two byte configuration file to the RS232 port.  The first byte is
for XIO 36, Aux 1 and the second byte is for XIO 38, Aux 1.  The first byte
will set baud rate, word size and number of stop bits to transmit.  The second
byte will set parity checking on input and parity on output, translation mode
and allow LF after CR.  These configuration files can be created with the COPY
command but first you must figure the Aux 1 code by adding the values in the
following tables.  Then find the corresponding ATASCII keyboard code and create
the desired two byte file with the COPY K: D:fname command (see COPY command
for more detail).

To calculate XIO 36, Aux 1--If you want:

    110 baud add 5     8 bit word  add 0
    300 baud add 0     7 bit word  add 16
   1200 baud add 10    6 bit word  add 32
   1800 baud add 11    5 bit word  add 48
   2400 baud add 12
   4800 baud add 13    1 stop bit  add 0
   9600 baud add 14    2 stop bits add 128

To calculate XIO 38,Aux 1--If you want:

   Translation:       End of LINE (EOL):
      Light  add 0      No FL append  add 0
      Heavy  add 16     Append LF     add 64
      None   add 32

  For Input Parity Check:     For Output Parity Set to:
      None   add 0                None    add 0
      Odd    add 4                Odd     add 1
      Even   add 8                Even    add 2
      Ignore add 12               Mark    add 3


Example
  PORT P_4800.RC





                                       46







This will send the configuration file P_4800.RC to the RS232 port.  P_4800.RC
is an example of a configuration file which is included on the master disk.
Its 2 bytes set the port at 4800 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and
send LF after CR on output.



__________________________
Chapter 14___INPUT AND OUTPUT REDIRECTION

Input Redirection
Input Redirection is the ability for a file (or device) to supply the input to
your computer AS IF YOU WERE TYPING IT YOURSELF.  This means that a file could
enter commands you normally type for a certain process.  Unlike other Atari
DOS's, ALL input (not just commands for the Command Processor) is redirected.
This is accomplished by using Batch files.


Batch Files
Purpose - To retrieve and execute a batch file (fname.BAT) which instructs DOS
to go perform specific operations in a specific order.  STARTUP.BAT is a
special batch file which is automatically executed when the disk is booted.

Syntax
-fname

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
A batch file contains executable DOS instructions.  It can be created with a
word processing program or with the screen editor using the COPY command.  You
can use the TYPE command to view the contents of a batch file.  A typical
example of a batch file could be to load an RS232 handler, go the BASIC
cartridge and then RUN a communications program.  All batch files MUST end with
the filename extension of .BAT (except with versions 2.x).  Comments can be
added to your batch files by typing a semicolon (;) at the beginning of the
command line.  The max length of a command line is 64 characters.  Each command
line is terminated by pressing the RETURN key.  To execute a batch file type a
dash (-) then the filename and RETURN.  Do NOT type the extension unless using
CP version 2.x and then only if the batch file does not end in .BAT.  Pressing
RESET while a batch file is running aborts the batch operation and goes
directly to DOS or the cartridge if present.

Generally a disk will have a STARTUP.BAT file which will initialize things the
way you want them for that particular disk.  For instance you may want the R-
Time 8 to be installed if it is present, the keyboard buffer installed and then
the screen cleared.  To create that batch file you could use the following
keystrokes:

Example
  COPY E: D:STARTUP.BAT
  TD
  KEY




                                       47







  ;<ESC><CTRL + CLEAR>
  <CTRL + 3>

In the above example, <ESC> means to press the ESC key, and <CTRL + CLEAR>
means to press the CTRL key and hold it down while you press the CLEAR key.
There are some special command files for use in batch files.  PAUSE.COM (CP
version 1.x) will stop execution of the batch file until another key is
pressed, and DIS_BAT.COM (CP version 1.x) will disable batch file processing.
PAUSE is internal with CP version 2.x and XDIV is the internal command to
disable batch files with CP version 2.x.

NOTE: While the command is in effect, IOCB #5 may NOT be used, since this is
the IOCB the input goes through.  This IOCB acts as if it were closed, meaning
that it could be opened (this WILL have bad side effects on the system and
cause unpredictable results.)  The reason for making the IOCB appear closed, is
to prevent the system from closing the file, ie. BASIC when entered, closes all
IOCBs.

SPCOPY, FORMAT, INIT and other commands, may re-initialize the DOS which will
terminate batch execution.  Batch files CAN NOT be used to call up other batch
files (linking) with CP version 1.x.  CP version 2.x does allow linking of
batch files (ie. the last command in a batch file can be -fname).

Example
  -MODEM

This command will execute the set of instructions saved under the filename
MODEM.BAT on the default drive under the current directory.  This file might
look like the following:

Example
  RS232
  CAR
  RUN "D:AMODEM4

This batch file when executed will run a file called RS232.COM (link in the
RS232 handler), go to the BASIC cartridge and then RUN the BASIC file called
AMODEM4.


__________________________
PAUSE Command
Purpose - To temporarily halt execution of a batch file and to prompt the user
for a response to continue.

Syntax
PAUSE

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 1.x
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
This is a convenient way to stop the screen while displaying instructions from




                                       48







a batch file.  CAUTION: when using PAUSE with SpartaDOS, do not swap disks
during a PAUSE command as this may destroy the second disk!  Abort the PAUSE
with a RESET.

Consider execution of the following batch file from drive 1:

Example
  RS232
  ;Please insert your communications
  ;program disk into drive #2
  ;
  PAUSE
  CAR
  RUN "D2:AMODEM4.2"

This batch file will first load the RS232 handler from the 850 interface then
display the next 3 comment lines and stop with the display 'Press any key to
continue'.  After the user follows the instructions and presses a key, this
program will go into the BASIC cartridge and run the modem program specified.


__________________________
TYPE Command
Purpose - To display the contents of an ASCII file.  Commonly used to read a
batch file without executing it.

Syntax
TYPE [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x.

Remarks
The file is read, line by line, and printed to the screen editor.  If a line is
longer than 64 characters, an error will occur (truncated record).  This
command will only print 1 file.  This same function could also be done with the
COPY command, however the COPY command will erase the contents of program
memory.  Use TYPE with the PRINT command (redirect output) to type a file to
the printer.

Example
  TYPE STARTUP.BAT

This command displays the contents of the batch file used for initialization.


Output Redirection
Output redirection is the ability to echo everything that gets written on the
screen, to another output device (or disk file).  This means that you can get a
hardcopy of everything that transpires on the computer.  The only exceptions
(data that will not be echoed) are programs that write directly to the screen
(like MENU.COM and most binary games).  The PRINT command sets the device (or
file) that output is to be echoed to.





                                       49







__________________________
PRINT Command
Purpose - To echo all output that is written to the screen editor (E: through
IOCB #0) to a specified output device.

Syntax
PRINT [dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [/A]   or
PRINT d[n]:   or
PRINT

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
The /A option is only allowed under CP version 2.x

Remarks
This command is normally used to send everything that gets printed on the
screen to the printer.  However, the output may go anywhere the user desires,
including a disk file.  This feature is very useful if one wants to have the
output of a BASIC program or an editing session, etc. go to the printer.

In CP version 1.x, the PRINT command acts like a toggle, the first time the
output goes to the device or file specified, the second time, the command
closes the file and output returns to normal.

In CP version 2.x, the PRINT command can be chained.  This means that the last
PRINT's file or device is closed, and output is echoed to the new file or
device.  If no parameter is given after the PRINT command, the file or device
is closed and it does NOT open another.  The /A option allows the user to
append the output to the end of an existing file.

NOTE: While the command is in effect, IOCB #4 may NOT be used, since this is
the IOCB the output goes through.  This IOCB acts as if it were closed, meaning
that it could be opened (this WILL have bad side effects on the system and
cause unpredictable results).  The reason for making the IOCB appear closed is
to prevent the system from closing the file, ie. BASIC when entered, closes all
IOCBs.

Example
  PRINT P:

This command sends all future screen display to the printer until another PRINT
command toggles this off.

  PRINT D1:SAVIT.NOW

Sends all future screen display to a file on drive #1 called SAVIT.NOW until
PRINT is entered.


How the I/O Redirection works
On the Atari computers, I/O redirection is possible because of something called
the device table (HATABS).  This is a list of device letters (ie. E K S P D...)
followed by a handler table address.  Sparta patches itself into the device
table and saves a pointer to its own handler table.  The handler table is a




                                       50







list of pointers to routines such as Get char, Put char, Open file, Close file,
Status and XIO.  The SpartaDOS handlers then check that the IOCB in use is #0.
If so, the DOS will take appropriate action to input from or output to the E:
(editor) device.


Disabling I/O redirection
Sometimes the I/O redirection can get the system into trouble.  The only time
it really happens is when trying to run a binary game (saved as a DOS file).
This is because a few games (not all) tend to move themselves on top of DOS,
and then output data through the E: device (crash...SpartaDOS is no longer
there to handle the editor (E:) output).  Thus, there is a need to restore the
Operating Systems (OS) handler(s) in the device table.  The following commands
perform this function.


__________________________
DIS_BAT Command
Purpose - The DIS_BAT command is used with CP version 1.x to disable batch
processing and the PRINT command (redirection of I/O).  This may be necessary
in order to run certain programs.  If using CP version 2.x see the XDIV
command.

Syntax
DIS_BAT

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
XDIV is preferable under CP version 2.x

Remarks
Certain programs will not run under SpartaDOS unless the batch file processing
is removed.  DIS_BAT will disable this and allow most of those programs to run
correctly.  DIS_BAT can be run as the last command of a batch file.  RESET re-
enables I/O redirection if disabled with DIS_BAT.


__________________________
XDIV Command
Purpose - The XDIV command is used with CP version 2.x to disable batch
processing and the PRINT command (redirection of I/O).  This may be necessary
in order to run certain programs.  If Using CP Version 1.x, See DIS_BAT.

Syntax
XDIV

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
Certain programs will not run under SpartaDOS unless the I/O redirection is
removed.  XDIV will disable this and allow most of those programs to run
correctly.  XDIV can be run as the last command of a batch file.  Unlike the
DIS_BAT command, XDIV is permanent until the computer is rebooted.




                                       51







__________________________
Chapter 15___KEYBOARD BUFFERS

Why a buffer
Do you ever find yourself trying to type ahead of the computer?  For example,
you want to load the RS232 handler, go into BASIC and then run a MODEM program.
No matter how fast the computer is, you still want to type CAR before the
computer has even had time to figure out the RS232 you just typed.  Well, again
SpartaDOS offers a solution to this urge.  Two commands are available (KEY for
non XL/XE's, XKEY for XL/XE's) that give you a buffer for keystrokes made ahead
of the computer.  As an added feature, the key repeat rate has been increased
to double that of normal.  The commands follow.


__________________________
KEY/XKEY Commands
Purpose - To install a 32 character keyboard buffer.

Syntax
KEY or
XKEY

Type and Restrictions
External and CP versions 1.x and 2.x
XKEY works on XL/XE computers
KEY works on non XL/XE computers

Remarks
One of the things we always miss after working on a larger computer is a large
keyboard buffer.  The standard Atari 8-bit computer has a one character buffer,
but the KEY/XKEY keyboard buffers allow type ahead while the computer is tied
up with other functions (ie. disk I/O, printing etc).  After executing this
command, you will have a 32 character keyboard buffer that is functional even
while in BASIC.

Example
  KEY

The buffer is now installed.  You can now do a TD, DIR, RS232, CAR and RUN
"D:MODEM, without waiting for the computer to catch up.



__________________________
Chapter 16___INFORMATION COMMANDS

Memory Related commands
The following are three commands relating to the allocation of memory.  The
BUFS command sets the number of buffers for CP version 1.x (which has a direct
bearing on how fast the DOS performs).  CP version 2.x has no BUFS command
since it maintains 12 buffers at all times (which are underneath the OS ROMs).
The MEMLO and MEM commands simply display the lower and upper bounds of memory
(MEMLO only displays lower bound).  They are really only important if you are
doing machine language programming.  The command descriptions follow:




                                       52







__________________________
MEMLO and MEM Commands
Purpose - To display MEMLO (lower bound) and MEMHI (upper bound, ONLY MEM
displays this).

Syntax
MEM or
MEMLO

Type and Restrictions
MEM is internal under CP version 2.x
MEMLO is external under CP versions 2.x and 1.x

Remarks
The MEM command displays MEMLO and MEMHI in Hexadecimal notation.  These values
can be useful since many of our files are relocatable and can move MEMLO up in
memory.  With this command you can see just how much memory one of these
relocatable file takes.  MEM will also give you an idea of the free memory
available.  You can see if the internal BASIC (XL/XE) is installed noting the
MEMHI location.  The MEMLO command only displays MEMLO.

Example
  MEM

This command displays the MEMLO and MEMHI values in this format:

  Memlo = $xxxx  Memhi = $xxxx

Where xxxx is any Hexadecimal number.


__________________________
BUFS Command
Purpose - To set or check the number of buffers currently in use under CP
version 1.x only.

Syntax
BUFS [n]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 1.x

Remarks
BUFS will display the number of 128 byte blocks of memory (buffers) currently
reserved for DOS use.  This display is a DECIMAL value between 2-16.  BUFS n
will set the number of buffers to be reserved for DOS use, where n is a
Hexadecimal (Hex) value between $2 and $10 (the $ means Hex--$10 is 16 in
decimal).  The boot up default is 4 under STANDARD.DOS, and 6 under the other
version 1.x DOSes.  This default can be changed when formatting a new version
1.x disk by using the INIT command.

NOTE: More buffers require more memory, which moves MEMLO up (the lower memory
boundary).  The minimum requirement for single density read and write is two,
and for double density read and write is four.  In general, if the program




                                       53







requires reading and writing in random fashion, the more buffers you have, the
faster the operation will be, and the less wear on your drives.

Sparta version 2.x has 12 buffers built in so the BUFS command is NOT needed.

Example
  BUFS F

The above command sets the number of DOS buffers to decimal 15.

  BUFS

This command results in the output of BUFS=n where n is the current number of
buffers in use (in decimal).


Disk Drive Related Commands
Two commands are included which allow you to check your drives speed and to
determine the amount of free space on your disk.  The number of free bytes and
total bytes are an estimate based on the number of free sectors and total
sectors respectively.  The commands follow.


__________________________
CHKDSK Command
Purpose - To display the volume name, random and sequence numbers (version 2.x
disk only), sector size, formatted bytes on disk, available bytes on disk and
write lock status (version 2.x disks only.)

Syntax
CHKDSK [Dn:]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
This command is used for determining information about a disk.  If the disk was
initialized with XINIT (version 2 format), CHKDSK will give a volume name then
random and sequence number.  SpartaDOS 2.x uses a random number (created when
formatted) and a sequence number (which increments when a file is opened for
write) to identify the disk (in addition to the volume name).  The next line is
the bytes per sector, which will be either 128 or 256 depending on the format.
The next line is the 'total bytes', which is the total formatted capacity
before any data is written.  The 'Bytes Free' is the amount of available space
left on the disk.  The 'Write Lock' is a software write protect ('ON' indicates
locked or protected).

If the disk is NOT a version 2 format, the random and sequence numbers and
write lock status are omitted from the display.  If the disk is an Atari DOS 2
type format then these plus the volume name are omitted from the display.

Example
  CHKDSK





                                       54







A hypothetical double density, single sided, SpartaDOS 2.x disk might display:

      Volume: Games1 OA 25
Bytes/sector: 256
 Total bytes: 184320
  Bytes free: 123390
  Write lock: ON


__________________________
RPM Command
Purpose - To display the drive speed in RPM for user information.

Syntax
RPM [Dn:]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
This command will start the drive spinning and read a sector continuously while
updating the display every second with the actual speed your drive is turning
in RPM (revolutions per minute).  The correct speed is 288 and can be adjusted
by turning VR2 on a 1050 drive or R104 on an 810 drive.  NOTE: a formatted disk
must be in the drive under test with the door closed.  Pressing any key will
stop the RPM test.

Example
  RPM D2:

The display will show Drive RPM is xxx, where xxx is the actual speed of drive
2.



__________________________
Chapter 17___MACHINE LANGUAGE SUPPORT

Loading, Saving and Running
SpartaDOS provides several commands to allow you to load, save and run binary
files (machine language).  These tend to be for more experienced programmers
but it doesn't hurt to understand them also.  All the .COM files on the
distribution disk are called command files.  Generally, when you write your own
utilities, you will want to make them into commands also.  Chapter 19 should be
read to understand how to interface with the command line (so that parameters
may be passed and used).


__________________________
Command Files
Purpose - To load and run binary files.  It also provides a standard for you to
pass parameters to machine language programs.

Syntax




                                       55







[Dn:][path>]fname [Parameters]

Type and Restrictions
Supported by CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
Command files are executable binary (machine language) files.  If you try to
execute a non-binary file you will get an error 152 or a 'Not binary file'
message with CP version 2.x.  All binary files begin with an $FF $FF header.
With CP version 1.x all command filenames must use the extension .COM.  To load
and run these files, type the 'fname' portion of the filename only (not the
.COM).  Wild cards are supported with both CP versions.

CP version 2.x has the added capability of treating any binary file as a
command file.  .COM is the assumed default extension.  To load and run a file
with any other extension, type the full filename, and if the file has no
extension, be sure to end the name with a period (.).

Command files are run at the beginning of the location of their first segment
load after they are fully loaded.  Run and INIT addresses ($2E0 and $2E2) are
also supported with the RUN address ($2E0) having priority over the run at
first location loaded address.

Example
  TYPING

The above example will load and run a file under any SpartaDOS called
TYPING.COM

  TYPING.

This will load and run the binary file called TYPING under CP version 2.x
because of its period at the end.


__________________________
LOAD Command
Purpose - This command loads any binary file into memory and does not run the
file.  The standard DOS RUN and INIT vectors are NOT used.

Syntax
LOAD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
This command is useful for loading character sets, binary data or files that
should not be run.  Note that a load can only be done from the 'D' Device,
since load is now an XIO function of the 'D' handler.

Example
  LOAD MYFILE.OBJ





                                       56







This loads a file called MYFILE.OBJ into the memory locations specified in its
header(s) but does not RUN the file.  NOTE: Don't get this confused with the
LOAD command in BASIC.  This LOAD is similar to the BASIC command but it loads
only binary files (with a header of $FF $FF).  BASIC programs are relocatable
while many binary files are not and can cause system crashes (if they load over
DOS or other volatile areas).


__________________________
RUN Command
Purpose - To re-execute the last .COM file or execute at a given address.  (To
load and run a binary file see 'Command Files' or the 'MENU' section).

Syntax
RUN [address]

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
If an address is not specified, then the last .COM file is executed.  RUNLOC
contains the address of the last command (see technical notes).  If you specify
an address, execution begins there and RUNLOC will be updated with that
address.  Note that 'address' is in Hex notation.

Example
  RUN 4000

This command starts executing a file at memory location $4000.

  RUN

This command runs the last file executed.  If SCOPY was run and you use the
OPTION key to get back to DOS, then typing RUN will take you back into SPCOPY
as long as the file was not destroyed in memory.  This can be a great time
saving feature.

NOTE: Don't get this confused with the RUN command from basic.  This RUN
command is meant to RUN binary (machine language) files, not tokenized basic
files.


__________________________
SAVE Command
Purpose - This command saves binary data from memory to disk.  To append data,
see the APPEND command, or with CP version 2.x use the /A option.

Syntax
SAVE [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [/A] address address

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
The /A option is only under CP version 2.x





                                       57







Remarks
This command saves a block of data with the first address being the start
memory address and the second address being the ending memory address.  The
file is saved in the same format as all binary files on the Atari.  An $FF $FF
header is written first, followed by the start and end addresses, and then the
data.  Remember that 'address' is a number in Hex notation.  When using CP
version 2.x, the /A option allows the SAVE command to work exactly like the
APPEND command, appending the block of data onto the existing file specified
(except APPEND does NOT write the $FF $FF header).

Example
  SAVE D1:CODE.OBJ 8000 9FFF

This command saves the memory from $8000 to $8FFF in a file called CODE.OBJ


__________________________
APPEND Command
Purpose - This command saves a binary block of data at the end of an existing
binary file.

Syntax
APPEND [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] address address

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The format is the same as in the SAVE command.  The file specified should
already exist since the $FF $FF header is NOT written.  Also the file is opened
for append/write rather than just write as in the SAVE command.  Remember that
address is in Hex notation.  APPEND can also be accomplished with CP versions
2.x by using the /A option with the COPY, SAVE or PRINT commands.  Do NOT try
to use the /A option with the APPEND command.  Garbage will result.

Example
  APPEND D1:GAMES>GHOST.COM 4000 47FF

The above command appends the block of memory from $4000 to $47FF onto the end
of the file called GHOST.COM on the disk in drive #1 under the existing
subdirectory called GAMES.  This is a command primarily for advanced users
working in assembly language.


Informational Commands
The next three commands are for the more experienced programmers.  The DUMP and
MDUMP commands give straight Hex dumps of a file and memory respectively.  The
OFF_LOAD command is a relocating load command used for loading programs at
locations other than their native load addresses.  Descriptions of these
commands follow.


__________________________
DUMP Command




                                       58







Purpose - This utility will display a file or portion of a file in Hex and
ATASCII or ASCII format.

Syntax
DUMP [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [start [#bytes]] [/P]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
The optional 'start' and '#bytes' parameters are not allowed when using an
Atari DOS 2 formatted disk.

Remarks
The DUMP command is used to find valuable information about a file.  The start
parameter is the beginning offset (Hex) in the file that you want to start
dumping from (default is 0).  If you try to point past the end of the file you
will get an error message 'Address Range Error'.  The '#bytes' parameter is the
number of bytes (Hex) you would like to have displayed.  The screen will show
the file position (in Hex) at the left, the values of 8 memory locations across
the screen and the ATASCII representation at the far right.  The optional /P
parameter will replace the control characters with periods leaving only ASCII
text at the far right.  This is useful if you want to redirect the output of
DUMP to a printer with the PRINT command.

Example
  DUMP TEST.OBJ 1000 5 /P

This command displays the Hex values at file positions $1000 through $1004 of
the file TEST.OBJ and also displays the ASCII equivalents while substituting
any control characters with periods.


__________________________
MDUMP Command
Purpose - This utility will display memory locations in Hex and ATASCII or
ASCII format.  It is very similar to DUMP but works on blocks of memory rather
than files.

Syntax
MDUMP [address [#bytes]] [/P]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks
The MDUMP command is used to display the contents of specific memory locations.
The screen will show file position (in Hex) at the left, the values (in Hex) of
8 memory locations across the center and the ATASCII representation at the far
right.  The optional /P parameter will replace the control characters with
periods, leaving only ASCII text at the far right.  This is useful if you want
to redirect the output of MDUMP to a printer with the PRINT command.

Example
  MDUMP 2E0 2





                                       59







This command displays the values (in Hex) of bytes $2E0 and $2E1 along with
their ATASCII equivalents.


__________________________
OFF_LOAD Command
Purpose - This utility command loads in files at an offset and optionally
displays segment address, file position for beginning of segment and can query
whether to load a given segment.  It may also be used to create non-relocatable
versions of OFF_LOAD.

Syntax
OFF_LOAD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] offset [/SNPQ]   or
OFF_LOAD -R address [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x
The N and Q parameters may not be used when OFF_LOADing from an Atari DOS 2
formatted disk.

Remarks
OFF_LOAD is a utility which is used to load segments of a file at given
addresses.  The offset is a number from 0-$FFFF (in Hex).  The S parameter
displays the start and end addresses of each segment and the new start address
with offset.  The N parameter indicates that the segments are NOT to be loaded.
This can be used with the other parameters to get address information without
loading anything.  The P parameter (Query) stops before it loads each segment
and asks 'Load this segment?'  Answer with Y/N.  The standard OFF_LOAD is
relocatable and LOADs at $B400 then RUNs just above MEMLO.  It intentionally
will not function with a language cartridge installed.  The second OFF_LOAD
format relocates the OFF_LOAD file to LOAD AND RUN at address, and then writes
it to the file specified by fname.  The purpose of this is to move the OFF_LOAD
program out of the way of the cartridge area if necessary.

Example
  OFF_LOAD TEST.COM 0 /SN

The above command will display the segment addresses of the file TEST.COM but
not load the file.


__________________________
PUTRUN Command
Purpose - This command appends the RUN vector containing the start address of
an external command file to the file.  This is to make a command such as MENU,
able to run as an AUTORUN.SYS (when only RUN/INIT vectors are used).

Syntax
PUTRUN [Dn:]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 1.x and 2.x

Remarks




                                       60







This command is actually only useful for making command files into Load and Run
files for running under Atari DOS 2.



__________________________
Chapter 18___DISK DRIVE I/O

This chapter describes the way the drive handles its reading and writing of
sectors, and a little about the SpartaDOS interface to the drive.  Toward the
end of the chapter, the VERIFY command (CP version 2.x only) is described in
detail.  The interface to US Doubler shall also be commented upon (and its high
speed interface).  Hopefully, after reading this, any misconceptions you may
have will be cleared up.


Basic Operation WITHIN the Drive.
All Atari drives are intelligent, meaning that the computer (800XL, etc)
doesn't have to worry about talking directly to the surface of the disk.  Yet
it (the computer) must still be able to retrieve the information from the disk.
This is accomplished by a three way interface WITHIN the drive.  These
interfaces are:

1) The Computer and Disk Drive Interface - This is commonly referred to as the
   SIO (Serial Input and Output).  All Atari devices (except the cassette) have
   a standard they abide by (which is discussed at great length in the Atari
   technical notes for the 800).  Basically the SIO operation is as follows
   (step-by-step):

     a) The computer sets the COMMAND line low (to ground).  This is one of the
         SIO port/cable lines.
     b) The computer sends a command frame.  This consists of 4 bytes.  They
         are 1) device ID--each unit on the serial port has a unique device ID,
         2) command--such as read/write/status/format, 3) and 4) two bytes of
         auxiliary information--such as the sector number in high and low
         bytes.  The command frame is followed by a checksum of the bytes of
         the command frame.
     c) The computer releases the COMMAND line by bringing it HIGH.
     d) The device (drive) identified by the device ID, answers by sending an
         ACK ($41(A), if the command is valid) or a NACK ($4E(N), if its
         invalid).
     e) If the drive needs a data frame (as in the write sector command), the
         computer will send a data frame (the sector data) followed by a
         checksum.
     f) If (e) occurred and the data is good, the drive will send an ACK, if
         the data is bad a NACK is sent.
     g) The disk drive performs the requested operation.  When done, the drive
         sends either a COMPLETE ($43(C)) or an ERROR ($45(E)) code.
     h) If doing a read type of operation, the drive will send the computer a
         data frame (the sector data) followed by a checksum.

2) The Drive CPU To Controller Interface - There is a special chip in the drive
   called a controller.  This device manages the specifics of the disk format,
   does the seeks for sectors and hand feeds the CPU the sector data.  The CPU




                                       61







   will simply supply the controller with the command, sector and track
   numbers.  The CPU sends data to the controller from its buffer (on a write)
   and receives data into its buffer (on a read).

3) The Drive CPU To Drive Hardware Interface - This last interface includes
   things like the drive motor, the stepper motor (moving track to track), the
   door and write protect sensors and various other controls.


SpartaDOS Buffer Management
SpartaDOS's sector buffer management is entirely different from the type used
with Atari.  SpartaDOS dynamically allocates blocks of memory for sector
buffering.  This means SpartaDOS does not require a buffer for each drive to be
used and does not need buffers for each open file.  Theoretically, you may have
7 files open on 7 different drives using only one buffer in single density or
two if double density (however, don't expect great speed).


Drive Access Vector
Did you ever wonder how the RamDisks linked themselves into the system, or how
AT_RS232 was able to switch concurrent I/O mode on and off?  Well, this is done
by providing a vector that ALL DRIVE ACCESSES THROUGH DOS use.  The Ramdisk
simply checks the device ID and takes over if there is a match with its ID.
Also, all SpartaDOS commands (ie. DUPDSK, INIT, XINIT, etc) use this vector so
they can take advantage of the high speed I/O.  For more information on this
vector (LSIO), refer to chapter 19.


US Doubler___High Speed I/O
The US Doubler has two sets of serial routines, one being the standard set, and
the other being the high speed set.  The routine that monitors the COMMAND line
reads the command frame in one speed and if an error (in checksum) occurs, the
CPU switches modes and will try for a short period of time to receive in the
new mode.  Once speeds have been matched, that speed becomes the default.
SpartaDOS, when it boots, does a ? command ($3F, refer to appendix G) to
determine just how fast the US Doubler high speed I/O is.  If that was
successful, SpartaDOS continues to operate that drive at the high speed mode.
Note: Utilities by other software companies will normally use the $E459 SIO
vector, so they will run at the normal speed.


Write With Verify
Many people seem to have misconceptions about write with verify.  Verification
occurs WITHIN the drive after it has written the sector.  It is often believed
than the computer does the verification by re-reading the sector.  The reasons
that SpartaDOS does not default to write with verify are because, 1) most
drives are extremely reliable and 2) it is three times slower than the normal
speed write (even with the US Doubler).  The reason it is so slow is because of
the sector skew.  Sectors are not in sequential order on Atari disks, they are
optimized to allow to sequential sectors to either be read or written in one
revolution.  Thus 10 sectors maybe read in 5 revolutions (which is about one
second).  With verify on, it takes 1.5 revolutions to write a sector (which is
about three seconds to write 10 sectors).  The US Doubler optimized the skew so
that it can read 3.5 sectors in single density and 3 sectors in double density




                                       62







in one revolution.  (Normal double density drives can only read one sector per
revolution, thus the 3x speed factor in double density).  If you are having
trouble with your drive, you may want to have it serviced, or until then use
verify.  The VERIFY command description follows.


__________________________
VERIFY Command
Purpose - This command changes the write mode to write with verify or write
without verify.

Format
VERIFY ON   or
VERIFY OFF

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 2.x

Remarks
Verify means to write a sector, read it back internally in the drive and
compare it with drive memory before going on to the next sector.  This takes
much more time than just writing to disk, but it may be able to trap write
errors.  VERIFY ON sets the mode to verify whenever writing, VERIFY OFF turns
verify off.  Most of us never use verify and have not had problems but it is
nice to have it available, especially if you are having drive problems.

Note: When you format a version 1.x disk, you may select the DOS to verify by
choosing to modify default parameters.  If you select to verify, the DOS (when
booted) will do all its writes with verify.



__________________________
Chapter 19___THE TECHNICAL STRUCTURE of SpartaDOS

This chapter tends to be hard to grasp if you haven't been around computers
much.  It gives as many details of the DOS as it can.  It starts out easy and
then steps quickly into the machine language world.


SpartaDOS Functions from Basic
The following is a list of SpartaDOS function and how to implement them from
BASIC through XIO statements.  The DOS command, if applicable, follows the
function name in parenthesis.

NOTE: Throughout these examples, IOCB represents an Input/Output Control Block
number from 1-7.  Atari disks refers to Atari DOS 2 type formatted disks.


__________________________
Open A File

Syntax
OPEN #IOCB,T,X,"Dn:fname.ext"




                                       63







Notes
This command opens a disk file through SpartaDOS.  'T' is the mode to open the
file in (output, input, update, directory etc).  The following are legal values
of 'T' and what they do.

   4  Open the file in read only mode.
   6  Open a formatted directory.  This returns a directory listing as in the
      DIR or DIRS command.  'X' indicates the style of directory.  If 'X' is
      128, then the directory is in the expanded format unless you are reading
      an Atari DOS 2 disk.  If 'X' is 0, then a short directory format is
      given.
   8  Open the file in write only mode.  Note: any command that operates on an
      OPEN in write only mode (8), can use the '/A' option (CP version 2.x
      only) to force the OPEN to an OPEN in append mode (9).
   9  Open file in append mode.  Data is written to the end of an existing
      file.
   12 Open for update mode.  This mode allows you to read and write a file.
   20 Open the current directory in read mode.  This is the raw data of the
      directory and can be read as any other file.  THIS MODE IS ONLY AVAILABLE
      ON SpartaDOS FORMATTED DISKS.
   24 Open the current directory in update mode.  This is the raw data of the
      directory and can be read or written like any other file.  THIS MODE IS
      ONLY AVAILABLE ON SpartaDOS FORMATTED DISKS.
   36 Open a subdirectory in read mode, but the subdirectory is to be read as
      if it were a regular file.  THIS MODE IS ONLY AVAILABLE ON SpartaDOS
      FORMATTED DISKS.

You must be careful of the read and update of unformatted directory and
subdirectory modes.  If a mode like 40 (subdirectory + write) is used, you may
destroy the entire subdirectory.  The above listed modes are the only modes
that are really useful to a user.  Functions like CREDIR and DELDIR are the
only routines that have a legitimate use for a mode like 40.


__________________________
Rename File(s) (RENAME)

Syntax
XIO 32,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:[path]fname.ext fname.ext

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  Wild cards may be used
in the filenames.  This function is valid for any format disk.  Atari DISKS MAY
ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Erase File(s) (ERASE)

Syntax
XIO 33,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:fname.ext"

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  Wild cards may be used




                                       64







in the filename.  This function is valid for any format disk.  Atari DISKS MAY
ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Lock Disk (LOCK)

Syntax
XIO 34,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  THIS FUNCTION IS VALID
FOR ONLY SpartaDOS VERSION 2.X DISKS AND MUST BE USED WITH A VERSION 2.X
SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Protect File(s) (PROTECT)

Syntax
XIO 35,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:[path>]fname[.ext]

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  Wild cards may be used
in the filenames.  This function is valid for any format disk.  THIS FUNCTION
MUST BE USED WITH A VERSION 2.X SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Unprotect File(s) (UNPROTECT)

Syntax
XIO 36,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:[path>]fname[.ext]"

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  Wild cards maybe used
in the filenames.  This function is valid for any format disk.  THIS FUNCTION
MUST BE USED WITH A VERSION 2.X SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Set File Position-POINT

Syntax
X=POS
Y=0
POINT #IOCB,X,Y   or

Y=INT(POS/65536)
POKE 846+IOCB*16,Y
POS=POS-Y*65536
Y=INT(POS/256)
POKE 845+IOCB*16,Y
POKE 844+IOCB*16,POS-Y*256




                                       65







XIO 37,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"   or

POINT #IOCB,SECTOR,OFFSET

Notes
FOR SpartaDOS DISKS: In the first method, position (POS) MUST be from 0-32767.
The second method may take position up to 8,388,607 ($7FFFFF in Hex notation).
You may position beyond the end of file if the file is opened in read and write
mode.  The space between the EOF and where you point is filled with zeros, but
physically, no sectors are used to hold the zero data.  Thus, it is possible to
have a file 32K in length but only 5 sectors long.  If the data in the gap is
accessed in any way, a sector will be created for the 128 or 256 byte area
around the location accessed.

NOTE: POINT under SpartaDOS uses an absolute position relative to the beginning
of the file.  This is different from the sector number and position byte as in
Atari DOS 2.

FOR Atari DOS 2 DISKS: In the third method, the POINT command gives a sector
number and an offset within the sector.  This is not a relative file position
as in SpartaDOS formatted disks.  This works identically like Atari DOS 2.
Atari DISKS MAY ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE
COMPUTER.


__________________________
Get Current File Position-NOTE

Syntax
NOTE #IOCB,X,Y
POS=X   or

XIO 38,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"
POS=PEEK(846+IOCB*16)*65536
POS=POS+PEEK(845+IOCB+16)*256
POS=POS+PEEK(844+IOCB*16)    or

NOTE #IOCB,SECTOR,OFFSET

Notes
FOR SpartaDOS DISKS: In the first method, position (POS) WILL be from 0-32767.
The second method will give positions up to 8,388,607 ($7FFFFF in Hex
notation).  Note that this is an absolute position relative to the beginning of
the file.  This is different from the sector number and position as in Atari
DOS 2.

FOR Atari DOS 2 DISKS: In the third method, the NOTE command gives a sector
number and an offset within the sector.  This is not a relative file position
as in SpartaDOS formatted disks.  This works the same as Atari DOS 2.  Atari
DISKS MAY ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE
COMPUTER.







                                       66







__________________________
Get File Length

Syntax
XIO 39,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"
POS=PEEK(846+IOCB*16)*65536
POS=POS+PEEK(845+IOCB*16)*256
POS=POS+PEEK(844+IOCB*16)

Notes
This returns the current file length (end of file pointer) of the currently
open file.  Note that this ONLY WORKS FOR SpartaDOS formatted disks.  Atari
formatted disks have no equivalent.


__________________________
Load Binary File (LOAD)

Syntax
XIO 40,#IOCB,4,X"Dn:[path]fname.ext

Notes
This command will load a binary file.  If X is less than 128, then the INIT and
RUN vectors will be used, otherwise they will be ignored.  Note that the IOCB
must not be open.  Atari DISKS MAY ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS
LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Save Binary File (SAVE and APPEND)

Syntax
XIO 41,#IOCB,R,X,"Dn:[path]fname.ext addr1 addr2"

Notes
This command will save a binary file between 'addr1' and 'addr2' where 'addr1'
and 'addr2' are given in Hex.  If 'R' is 8 then the file will be over written.
If 'R' is 9 then the file will be appended to (as in DOS's APPEND command).  If
'X' is less than 128 then a binary file header of $FF $FF will be written,
otherwise, it will not be written (preferable for APPENDing segments).  Note
that the IOCB must not be open.  Atari DISKS MAY ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A
VERSION 2 SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Create Directory (CREDIR)

Syntax
XIO 42,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:path

Notes
This command creates a new directory.  The last name in the pathname is the
directory to be created.  The path leading up to the name must be a valid and
existing path.  Note that the IOCB must not be open.  THIS WILL NOT WORK ON




                                       67







Atari DOS 2 DISKS.


__________________________
Delete Directory (DELDIR)

Syntax
XIO 43,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:path

Notes
This command deletes a directory.  The directory must contain no files in order
for it to be deleted.  The last name in the pathname is the directory to be
deleted.  The path leading up to the name must be a valid and existing path.
Note that the IOCB must not be open.  THIS WILL NOT WORK ON Atari DOS 2 DISKS.


__________________________
Change Working Directory (CWD)

Syntax
XIO 44,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:path

Notes
This changes the current default directory.  The pathname must be valid and all
directory names in the path must exist.  Note that the IOCB must be closed.
THIS WILL NOT WORK ON Atari DOS 2 DISKS.


__________________________
Set Boot File (BOOT)

Syntax
XIO 45,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:[path>]fname[.ext]

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  Wild cards maybe used
in the filename.  THIS FUNCTION IS VALID FOR ONLY SpartaDOS VERSION 2.X
DISKETTES AND MUST BE USED WITH A VERSION 2.X SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE
COMPUTER.


__________________________
Unlock Disk (UNLOCK)

Syntax
XIO 46,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  THIS FUNCTION IS VALID
FOR ONLY SpartaDOS VERSION 2.X DISKETTES AND MUST BE USED WITH A VERSION 2.X
SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.







                                       68







__________________________
Format Disk in Atari DOS 2 Format (AINIT)

Syntax
XIO 254,#IOCB,0,0,"Dn:"

Notes
The IOCB must be closed for this operation to be used.  THIS FUNCTION MAY BE
USED ONLY WITH A VERSION 2.X SpartaDOS LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
Directory Listing (DIR)

Syntax
10DIM A$(40):TRAP 40
20 OPEN #IOCB,6,X,"Dn:(path>)fname[.ext]
30 INPUT #IOCB,A$:PRINT A$:GOTO 30
40 CLOSE #IOCB

Notes
If 'X' is less than 128, then a standard Atari DOS 2 listing is given.  If 'X'
is greater than 12, then the expanded (SpartaDOS) listing is given, showing
file size, date and time.  For an explanation of the directory format, refer to
chapter 3.  Atari DISKETTES CAN ONLY BE ACCESSED WITH A VERSION 2 SpartaDOS
LOADED INTO THE COMPUTER.


__________________________
COMTAB EQUATES
Because SpartaDOS is mainly a Command Processor driven DOS, a great number of
variables have been made user accessible.  These are mainly for parameters
passing on the command line, time and date interface, addresses of important
routines within the DOS and a few other miscellaneous datum.  The data table is
referred to as 'COMTAB' and is pointed to by 'DOSVEC' (at memory location 10).
A few assembly language routines will follow as an aid.  The user area at
COMTAB is as follows:

    LSIO      [COMTAB-10]    This location contains the address of the SIO
        routine SpartaDOS uses.  This is actually a vector, so you may replace
        this address with your own.  The Ramdisk patches in here to trap access
        to the drive it is emulating.  Many commands use this vector to run the
        DOS's high speed SIO routine.

    ECHOFLG   [COMTAB-8]     This location contains the index into HATABS
        (table of handler IDs and addresses) of the file SpartaDOS is echoing
        output to.  A value of $FF indicates that echoing is inactive.  THIS
        LOCATION IS VALID ONLY WHILE RUNNING UNDER SpartaDOS 2.x.

    BATFLG    [COMTAB-6]     This location contains the index into HATABS
        (table to handler IDs and addresses) of the file SpartaDOS is receiving
        input from.  A value of $FF indicates that no batch file is active.
        THIS LOCATION IS VALID ONLY WHILE RUNNING UNDER SpartaDOS 2.x.





                                       69

    WRTCMD    [COMTAB-2]     This location contains the SIO write command.  A
        'W' is the write with verify command, and 'P' is the write with no
        verify command.  THIS LOCATION IS VALID ONLY WHILE RUNNING UNDER
        SpartaDOS 2.x.

    WARMST    [COMTAB-1]     This flag, if set, indicates that the Command
        Processor is doing a cold start.  It is cleared (to 0) whenever the
        Command Processor is entered.  It is used to trap errors when trying to
        open 'STARTUP.BAT' or 'AUTORUN.SYS'.

    COMTAB    [COMTAB]       This location contains a 6502 jump instruction to
        the Command Processor.  BASIC enters here on a 'DOS' command.

    ZCRNAME   [COMTAB+3]     This location contains a 6502 jump instruction to
        the filename crunch routine (CRNAME).  This is used by most external
        DOS commands to fetch the next filename on the command line.  The
        command line is at 'LBUF' and the crunched filename ends up at
        'COMFNAM'.  This routine supplies the default drive number if
        necessary.  The zero flag on return is SET if no filename is on the
        command line.  Each call returns the next filename on the command
        line.

    ZDIVIO    [COMTAB+6]     This location contains the address of the divert
        input/output (redirection of I/O) routine.  From an assembly language
        program, you may call the routine through an indirect jump to 'ZDIVIO'
        with the filename at 'COMFNAM' and the Y register equal to 0 if output
        (PRINT), or 1 if input (-fname).

    ZXDIVIO   [COMTAB+8]     This location contains the address of the stop
        divert input/output routine.  From an assembly language program, you
        may call the routine through an indirect jump to 'ZXDIVIO' with the Y
        register equal to 0 if stopping output (PRINT), or 1 if stopping input
        (force end of file).

    BUFOFF    [COMTAB+10]    This location contains the current offset into the
        command line.  'CRNAME' uses this pointer to fetch the next parameter
        on the command line (at 'LBUF') and move it to 'COMFNAM'.

    ZORIG     [COMTAB+11]    This location contains the start address of
        SpartaDOS.  $600 is the start address of SPEED.DOS, STANDARD.DOS and
        $700 is the start address of all other versions.

    DATER     [COMTAB+13]    This location contains the current date in
        DD/MM/YY format (3 bytes).  This is the date that SpartaDOS inserts in
        the directory whenever a new file or directory is created.  To override
        this, see 'TDOVER'.

    TIMER     [COMTAB+16]    This location contains the current time in
        HH/MM/SS format (3 bytes, Not in BCD format, therefore it can be read
        with no conversion from BASIC).  This is the time that SpartaDOS
        inserts in the directory whenever a new file or directory is created.
        To override this, see 'TDOVER'.

    ODATER    [COMTAB+19]    This location contains the alternate date in




                                       70







        DD/MM/YY format (3 bytes).  SpartaDOS uses this date instead of 'DATER'
        if the 'TDOVER' flag is set.

    OTIMER    [COMTAB+22]    This location contains the alternate time in
        HH/MM/SS format (3 bytes).  SpartaDOS uses this time instead of 'TIMER'
        if the 'TDOVER' flag is set.

    TDOVER    [COMTAB+25]    This location contains the time and date override
        flag.  It is set to 0 if to use 'DATER' and 'TIMER' when it creates new
        files, and set to $FF if to use 'ODATER' and 'OTIMER'.  This is used by
        file copy programs (such as SPCOPY and MENU) to insure that the time
        and date of each file is preserved.

    TRUN      [COMTAB+26]    This location contains the RUN address of a load
        file.  This location is updated during the internal load operation, so
        BASIC or any other program may check what the load address was.
        'RUNLOC' is updated from this location by the Command Processor only.

              [COMTAB+28]
    This location always has a value of 128.

    DDENT     [COMTAB+29]    This location contains the density (sector size)
        of each drive (4 in all--SpartaDOS 1.x only supports 4 drives).  A
        value of 0 indicates 256 byte sectors, and a 128 indicates 128 byte
        sectors.  THIS TABLE IS VALID ONLY FOR VERSION 1.x SPARTADOS.  The
        DDENT table is inaccessible if you are using SpartaDOS 2.x.

    COMFNAM   [COMTAB+33]    This is the buffer for the output of the ZCRNAME
        routine.  It is a 28 byte long buffer and ALWAYS begins in the form
        'dn:' so if you are only looking for parameters, you may start looking
        at COMFNAM+3.

    RUNLOC    [COMTAB+61]    This location contains the run address of a '.COM'
        file when it is loaded through the Command Processor (as a command).
        If no address is specified after the RUN command, this is the address
        to be run.

    LBUF      [COMTAB+63]    This location contains the input buffer.  This is
        where the command line is stored.  'LBUF' is 64 bytes in length.


__________________________
Format of SpartaDOS Disks
Sectors are of 4 types in SpartaDOS, they are 1) boot sectors, 2) bit maps, 3)
sector (allocation) maps or 4) data sectors.  Data sectors may be divided into
two classes, directory sectors and file sectors.  The following is a detailed
description of each sector type and the structure of a SpartaDOS directory.


Boot Sectors
The boot sectors are the first 3 sectors on all SpartaDOS disks.  They contain
the program that loads in the DOS, links it into the system and enters the
Command Processor.  The first sector contains a large table of data which:
points to the first bit map sector, points to the main directory sector map,




                                       71







holds the density and free sectors and contains the volume name, to name a few.
Listed below is where each item of data is kept.  The numbers represent offsets
into the sector.

  9--This is the first sector map of the MAIN directory.
  11-This is the total number of sectors on the disk.
  13-This is the number of free sectors on the disk.
  15-This is the number of bit map sectors used on the disk.
  16-This is the sector number of the first bit map sector.
  18-This is the sector number to begin the file data sector allocation search.
      This is the beginning sector number that is checked to see if free when
      writing a standard file.
  20-This is the sector number to begin the directory data sector allocation
      search.  This is the beginning sector number that is checked to see if
      free when expanding a directory or creating a new directory.  This is
      used so that directory sectors are close together (hopefully continuous)
      for faster operation.
  22-This is the disk volume name (8 chars).  These must be unique on SpartaDOS
      version 1.x disks OR when using a version 1.x SpartaDOS.
  30-This is the number of tracks the disk has.  The most significant bit is
      set if this is a double sided drive.
  31-This is the size of the sectors on this disk.  A 0 indicates 256 byte
      sectors and a 128 indicates 128 byte sectors.
  32-This is the MAJOR revision number of the DOS on this diskette.  Possible
      values are $10 (for 1.x versions) and $20 (for 2.x versions).
  33-This is the number of buffers reserved for sector storage (default if
      booted).  NOT APPLICABLE TO SPARTADOS VERSION 2.x DISKS.
  34-This is the default drive the Command Processor uses if this disk is
      booted.
  35-RESERVED
  36-RESERVED
  37-This is the number of sectors in the main DOS boot (UNDER VERSION 1.x
      DISKS ONLY).
  38-This is the volume sequence number.  It is incremented every time an open
      file for write occurs.  It is used, in addition to the volume name, to
      determine if the disk has been changed.  ONLY APPLICABLE TO SPARTADOS 2.x
      DISKS.
  39-This is the volume random number.  This is simply a random number
      generated when the disk was formatted.  Its function is the same as the
      volume sequence number.  ONLY APPLICABLE TO SPARTADOS 2.x DISKS.
  40-This is the first sector map of the file specified by the BOOT command.
      This is how the boot program knows what file to load.  ONLY APPLICABLE TO
      SPARTADOS 2.x DISKS.
  42-This is the write lock flag.  A value of $FF indicates the disk is locked,
      and a 0 indicates that it is not.  ONLY APPLICABLE TO SPARTADOS 2.x
      DISKS.


Bit Maps
A bit map is a sequence of bits that determine whether a sector is in use or
not.  Bit 7 represents the first sector in a group of 8 and Bit 0 represents
the 8th sector in the group.  The first byte of the bit map corresponds to
sector numbers 0-7, the second corresponds to sector numbers 8-15, etc.  (NOTE
that sector number 0 does not exist).  If more than 1 bit map is required for




                                       72







the disk, they will be sequential on the disk.  A sector is free if the
corresponding bit map byte is SET (1).


Sector Maps
Sector maps are simply a list of sectors allocated to a file or a directory.
The first two entries in a sector (allocation) map are a link to the next
sector map and a link to the last (previous) sector map.  The rest of the
sector is just a list of up to 62 (if SD) or 126 (if DD) sector numbers making
up the file or directory entries.

  next:  This is the sector number of the next sector map.  It will be a 0 if
         this is the last sector map.

  last:  This is the sector number of the last (previous) sector map.  It will
         be 0 if it is the first sector map.

  data:  These are the sector numbers of the data sectors of the file.  If a
         data sector number is 0, then that portion of the file is not
         allocated.  This can happen if a file is written to at a low file
         position and then written to at a high file position without ever
         writing the middle data (see POINT).


The Directory Data Structure
The directory is a special file that gives information about each file and each
subdirectory it contains.  Each entry in the directory is 23 bytes in length
and contains the filename, the time and date, the length, the first sector map
number and the status of the entry.  The first entry is special, it contains
the entry describing its directory as a file.  The parent directory's entry for
a subdirectory maintains everything except the length of the subdirectory.  The
first entry contains the following information (the numbers are offsets into
the entry):

     1) This is the first sector map number of the parent directory.  A 0
        indicates that this is the base (or main) directory.
     3) This is the length of the directory (3 bytes).
     6) This is the directory name (8 bytes).

When a directory is opened (unformatted mode), the file position is
automatically set to the second entry.  You must do a position if you want to
read the entry containing the above information (first entry).  The rest of the
entries contain the following information (the numbers are offsets into the
entry):

     0--This is the file status byte.  A zero indicates the end of the
        directory file.  The following describes the meaning of SET bits:
        bit 0-The entry is protected.
        bit 3-The entry is in use.
        bit 4-The entry has been deleted.
        bit 5-The entry is a subdirectory.
     1--This is the first sector map of the file
     3--This is the length of the file (3 bytes)
     6--This is the filename (8 bytes...space padded)




                                       73







     14-This is the filename extension (3 bytes..space padded.)
     17-This is the data the file was created (DD/MM/YY - 3 bytes).
     20-This is the time the file was created (HH/MM/SS - 3 bytes).


More SpartaDOS Functions Accessible Through the CIO
The following is a list of special CIO functions NOT included in the list of
BASIC XIO functions.  These tend to be more difficult to use through BASIC


__________________________
Check Disk Status (CHKDSK)
This function retrieves information about the disk.  The following are the
input and output parameters:

CIO Input Conditions
     iccom=47
     icbal=low byte of Dn:address
     icbah=high byte of Dn:address
     icbll=low byte of buffer address
     icblh=high byte of buffer address

CIO Output Results
     buffer=result of CHKDSK operation (17 bytes)
     +0    = version number of disk: 0 if Atari DOS 2
     +1    = number of bytes per sector: 0 implies 256
     +2    = total sectors on disk (low,high)
     +4    = free sectors on disk (low,high)
     +6    = volume name (8 bytes, SpartaDOS only)
     +14   = volume sequence number (1 byte, SpartaDOS 2.x)
     +15   = volume random number (1 byte, SpartaDOS 2.x)
     +16   = write lock flag (1 byte, 0=false (unlocked), SpartaDOS 2.x)


__________________________
Get Current Directory Path (?DIR)
This function returns the current directory path.  The input/output parameters
are as follows:

CIO Input Conditions
     iccom=48
     icbal=low byte of Dn:(path>address
     icbah=high byte of Dn:(path>address
     icbll=low byte of buffer address
     icblh=high byte of buffer address

CIO Output Results
     buffer=result of ?DIR operation.  This is a legal path describing the path
            to the directory specified in the command.  If no path is
            specified, then the function returns the current default directory
            path.  The path is ended with an EOL.







                                       74







__________________________
Chapter 20___DIFFERENCES Between SpartaDOS 1.x and 2.x

This chapter lists the enhancements written into the CP version 2.x of
SpartaDOS.  It is intended mainly for those who have already been using version
1.x that want to quickly know the differences.  The new external commands are
not listed here.  Use the table of contents or the command summary to review
those.  The major differences are:

    1)  SpartaDOS 2.x resides primarily in the ram underneath the OS ROM of the
        computer.  Therefore, it will only work on the XL/XE computers (since a
        standard 800 doesn't have ram under the OS).  By using this method, you
        now have about 4K more usable memory available.

    2)  SpartaDOS can now read and write all Atari DOS 2 disks automatically.
        If an Atari DOS 2 disk is in the drive, all functions that work with
        Atari DOS 2 will work EXACTLY as they did while using Atari DOS 2.
        There are a few additions to the Atari handler as follows:

         a) A CHKDSK XIO function has been added to the Atari handler
            (described in chapter 19).

         b) The Write capability has been enhanced.  In UPDATE mode, you may
            continue writing beyond the end of the file.  Before you could only
            write up to the end, an error would result if you tried to write
            further.  Now you automatically enter an append mode when the
            transition is made.  In essence, file operations work the same as
            in the SpartaDOS handler with the exception of NOTE and POINT.
            These preserve the Atari DOS 2 interpretation (section #/offset).

         c) The disk initialization function (XIO 254) has also been included.
            This will format exactly like Atari DOS 2 would.  The density is
            dependent upon the configuration of the drive as is normal with all
            Atari DOS 2 implementations.

         d) SpartaDOS will also work with double density Atari DOS 2 disks.

         e) You may now open files after the formatted directory has been
            opened.  Atari DOS 2 has a bug where it loses its place in the
            directory when a file is opened.

    3)  All references to COPY being in page 6 should be ignored.  COPY is now
        completely internal and resides under the OS ROM.

    4)  The BUFS command has been eliminated.  There are now always 12 buffers
        which reside under the OS ROM.

    5)  Most errors that can occur with use of the Command Processor have error
        messages displayed rather than error numbers.

    6)  Unique volume names are no longer required (as long as you are using
        version 2.x).  A random number is put on the boot sector (sector 1)
        during format time.  A sequence number is also used, and is incremented
        every time a file is closed that was open for writing, or whenever any




                                       75







        disk modifying command is performed (ie. ERASE, CREDIR etc).

    7)  Batch files may now be linked (ie. the last line in a batch file may
        call another batch file).  Also, PRINT is no longer a toggle.  Without
        any parameters, PRINT will just close the current file.  With a
        filename, it will close the current file (if one was open), and then
        start a new PRINT file.  NOTE: these changes are at the XDIVIO and
        DIVIO level, so if using the assembly calls, this will work.

    8)  The PAUSE and MEM commands are now internal.

    9)  A file with one or more wild cards cannot be written to the disk.
        Thus, the command COPY E: will not be allowed.  This protects against
        accidental erasures of the first file.  Before, this command would
        replace the first file and take on a name of ????????.???.  The only
        way to erase this file was to ERASE *.*.

    10) PROTECT and UNPROTECT commands have been added.  They work identically
        to the Atari DOS 2 commands.  The XIO codes are the same as described
        by Atari DOS 2.  (protect=35, unprotect=36)

    11) Disks may be software LOCKed and UNLOCKed.  If a disk is locked, it
        will act just as though a write protect tab is on the disk, however a
        different error code is returned.  The XIO codes are: lock=34,
        unlock=46.

    12) The following error codes and meanings have been added:
         $95=Not version 2.x disk
         $94=Not a SpartaDOS disk
         $A3=Illegal wild card in filename
         $A4=File protected (attempt to replace was made)
         $A9=Disk is write locked

    13) The VERIFY command has been added.  This allows the user to change
        between write with verify and write without verify.

    14) The XDIV command has been added.  This command permanently disables the
        batch file and PRINT capability.  This is because some application
        programs will function incorrectly while the EDITOR handler is
        patched.

    15) The DIRS directory command has been added.  This will list the
        directory in Atari DOS 2 compatible mode.  The sectors per file field
        is a calculated number and may be 1 off but is unlikely with files
        under 8K.  This type of directory listing was previously available, but
        not under the Command Processor, nor did it have correct sector counts,
        they were 0 filled before.

    16) An error will be given if SpartaDOS 2.x is read into a non-XL/XE
        computer.  RESET will reboot the computer.  Also, an error will be
        given if there is no DOS (as set by BOOT or XINIT) on the disk.

    17) The BOOT command has been added.  This command will select a program
        (normally DOS) to load when the disk is booted.  The file selected must




                                       76







        be a standard binary load file.  The INIT and RUN vectors are handled
        normally (as described under Atari DOS 2 and SpartaDOS).  This is the
        XIO function number 45.

    18) The DOS loader (on the first 3 sectors of each disk) can now load files
        in the same manner as the LOAD command.  Normally DOS is loaded, but
        actually anything could be loaded.  This makes a good way of creating
        binary boot programs.  NOTE: the loader resides from $3000-$3180 and
        uses $2E00-$3000 for data, so the booted file must not overwrite these
        areas.

    19) The MAIN directory is no longer scanned twice when OPENed for READ, if
        the CURRENT directory is the MAIN directory.  Before, when trying to
        load a nonexistent file at the base (MAIN) directory, the directory was
        scanned twice for the file.

    20) From assembly language, the character immediately following the
        filename does not have to be a $9B or less than $20.  Now any non-
        alphanumeric character can end a filename except >, which is reserved
        as a place holder in pathnames.  This is so a few more programs will
        work correctly.  Also, a comma may delimit filenames for the RENAME
        function.  (MEDIT uses a comma)

    21) The CAR command now checks to make sure a cartridge is present.

    22) A CHKDSK command has been added.  It states the volume name, the random
        and sequence numbers, the total bytes per disk, the free bytes per
        disk, the sector size and the write lock status.  Only SpartaDOS 2.x
        disks will display the write lock status and the sequence and random
        numbers.  This is also an XIO function (described in chapter 19).

    23) The following data structures and definitions have been modified:

        a.  BIT(0) of the directory status byte is SET (1) if the entry is
            PROTECTED, and CLEAR if not.
        b.  at +38 in sector 1 is the volume sequence number.
        c.  at +39 in sector 1 is the volume random number.
        d.  at +40 in sector 1 is the first sector map number of the file to
            boot (ie. XD23B.DOS etc).
        e.  at +42 in sector 1 is the write lock flag, $FF is locked.

    24) The AINIT command has been added.  This is the Atari DOS 2 format
        command, and is also XIO function number 254.  A Yes/No prompt is given
        for safety.

    25) The following are new definitions of offsets within COMTAB (numbers
        represent offsets):
         -2 SIO command used to write a sector (P or W)
         -7 Flag indicating active DIVIN ($FF is false)
         -8 Flag indicating active DIVOUT ($FF is false)

    26) An error message (File not found) will be given if a RENAME, ERASE,
        PROTECT or UNPROTECT command is used and no files match the filespec.





                                       77







    27) High Speed I/O routines are placed under the OS ROM.  During boot up of
        the disk, the high speed routines are automatically switched to as soon
        as they are loaded.



 __________________________
 APPENDIX A___Errors

 Atari Basic Error Messages
 Code #   Error Code Message
  2.......Insufficient Memory
  3.......Value Error
  4.......Too many variables
  5.......String length error
  6.......Out of data error
  7.......Number greater than 32767
  8.......Input statement error
  9.......Array or string DIM error
 11.......Floating point overflow or underflow error
 12.......Line not found
 13.......No Matching FOR statement
 15.......GOSUB or FOR line deleted
 16.......RETURN error
 17.......Garbage error
 18.......Invalid string character
 19.......LOAD program too long
 20.......Device number zero or greater than 7
 21.......LOAD file error



 SpartaDOS Error Messages
 Code #   Error Code Messages
 128($80).BREAK abort
 129($81).IOCB Already open
 130($82).Nonexistent device specified
 131($83).File's IOCB not open for read
 132($84).Invalid IOCB command
 133($85).Device or file's IOCB not open
 134($86).Bad IOCB number
 135($87).File's IOCB not open for write
 136($88).End of File
 137($89).Truncated record
 138($8A).Device Timeout (No drive found)
 139($8B).Device NAK (Not AcKnowledged).  This is a message you'll get when
          trying to read an incompatible DOS or disk not in place.
 144($90).Device done error (bad sector or disk write protected)
 146($92).Function not implemented in handler.
 148($94).Not a SpartaDOS disk
 149($95).Disk not SpartaDOS 2.x
 150($96).Directory not found
 151($97).File exists.  May not replace or delete file.  Can happen when saving
          a file with a directory of the same name (dname=fname.ext).




                                       78







 152($98).Not a binary file
 160($A0).Drive number error
 162($A2).Disk Full (no free sectors)
 163($A3).Illegal wild card in filename
 164($A4).File erase protected
 165($A5).File name error - illegal characters in filename
 166($A6).Position range error
 167($A7).Cannot delete directory
 168($A8).Illegal DOS command is not possible
 169($A9).Disk is write locked
 170($AA).File not found - misspelled command, path>fname or a write operation
          was tried with NOWRITE.DOS



__________________________
APPENDIX B___COMMAND SUMMARY

?DIR [Dn:][path>]   pg22
    Internal-2.x     To show the path to a specified directory.  If no path is
    given as a parameter, the current directory path is displayed.

AINIT [Dn:]   pg18
    Internal-2.x      This command is used to format a disk in Atari DOS 2
    style format.

APPEND [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] address address   pg58
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     This command saves a binary block of data at the
    end of an existing binary file.

AT_RS232   pg45
    External-1.x and 2.x     Loads the RS232 handler for the ATR8000.

AUTOBAT [Dn:][path>]fname.ext   pg127
    External-3.2+ ONLY     Causes specified batch file to be run whenever RESET
    is pressed.  For SpartaDOS 3.2 and above.

BASIC ON or BASIC OFF   pg15
    Internal-2.x     This command installs or removes the internal BASIC with
    the XL/XE computers.

Batch Files (syntax below)
-fname   pg47
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     To retrieve and execute a batch file (fname.BAT)
    which instructs DOS to go perform specific operations in a specific order.
    STARTUP.BAT is a special batch file which is automatically executed when
    the disk is booted.

BOOT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg20
    Internal-2.x     This command tells a SpartaDOS 2.x formatted disk to boot
    a particular program at startup.

BUFS [n]   pg53
    Internal-1.x     To set or check the number of buffers currently in use




                                       79







    under CP version 1.x only.

BYPASS   pg126
    External     Causes Supra Hard Disk Interface to use floppy drive one
    instead of hard disk drive one.

CAR   pg15
    Internal-1.x and 2.x      Exits from DOS to a language cartridge.

CHKDSK [Dn:]   pg54
    Internal-2.x      To display the volume name, random and sequence numbers
    (version 2.x disks only), sector size, formatted bytes on disk, available
    bytes on disk and write lock status (version 2.x disks only).

CHTD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg43
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command is used to change a files
    time and date stamp.

CHVOL [Dn:]vname   pg31
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command is used to change the volume
    name on a disk.

CLEANUP Dn: [/P]   pg112
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command detects and corrects file
    structure defects on SpartaDOS disks.  Option P sends optional report to
    printer.

Command Files (syntax below)
 [Dn:][path>]fname [parameters]   pg55
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     To load and run binary files.  It also provides a
    standard for passing parameters to machine language programs.

COPY  d[n]:[path>][fname[.ext]] [dn:][path>][fname[.ext]] [/A]   pg25
    Internal-1.x with exceptions and 2.x     Note: The /A option is for CP
    version 2.x

    COPY one or more files from one device to another and if specified, gives
    the copy a different name.  COPY can also be used to append one file to
    another under CP version 2.x only.

    COPY can copy file to the same disk, however the copy must have a different
    name unless the destination is another directory.  Note that a file may NOT
    be copied to the same disk drive with a different disk.  There is no
    provision to switch disks in the middle of the COPY process.  If a single
    drive copy is desired, see the SPCOPY, XCOPY, MENU or DUPDSK commands.  You
    may also use COPY to transfer data between any of the other system devices,
    ie: Screen Editor, Printer, Keyboard etc.

CREDIR [Dn:]path   pg22
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     Creates a subdirectory on the specified disk.

CWD [Dn:]path   pg23
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     Change the working directory on the disk.





                                       80







DATE   pg121
    Internal-3.2+ ONLY     To display and set date for SpartaDOS 3.2 and
    above.

DELDIR [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]  pg23
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     Deletes a subdirectory entry.  You must first
    delete all files in a subdirectory in order for DELDIR to work.

DIR [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]   or
DIRS [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]] (optional with CP version 2.x)   pg14
    Internal-1.x and 2.x with exceptions.     To display the volume name and
    the specified directory name, to list files and subdirectories in the
    directory, the file size in bytes, the date and time the files were create
    and the number of free sectors left on disk.  DIR may be used to list all
    files matching a filespec pattern by using wild cards.  DIRS displays the
    short form directory as used with Atari DOS 2.0 (CP version 2.x only)

DIS_BAT   pg51
    External-1.x and 2.x (use XDIV with 2.x)     The DIS_BAT command is used
    with CP version 1.x to disable batch processing and the PRINT command
    (redirection of I/O).  This may be necessary in order to run certain
    programs.  If using CP version 2.x see the XDIV command.

DISKRX    or
DISKRX Dn:   or
DISKRX [Dn:][Path>]fname.ext   pg107
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command edits sectors, traces files
    and rebuilds directories etc.

DOSMENU   pg103
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command replaces Command Processor
    with an Atari DOS 2 type menu driven DOS.

DUMP [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [start [#bytes]] [/P]   pg58
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility will display a file or portion of a
    file in HEX/ATASCII/ASCII format.

DUPDSK   pg28
    External-1.x and 2.x     To duplicate an entire SpartaDOS disk (except for
    volume name) using 1 or 2 drives.  Note: Number of tracks and densities
    must match on source and destination disks or an error will result.

ERASE [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]  pg29
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     ERASE deletes the file or files from the specified
    file name from the specified directory.  If no path is specified, the file
    is deleted from the current directory.

FORMAT   pg19
    External-1.x and 2.x     This command is used to format the disk, create
    the directory structure and optionally put DOS on the disk.  Only creates
    1.x disks.  Use XINIT for 2.x disks.

INIT   pg16
    External-1.x and 2.x     This is the master formatting program for




                                       81







    SpartaDOS 1.x versions and allows selection of certain default parameters.
    Only creates 1.x disks.  Use XINIT for 2.x disks.

KEY   or  pg52
KEY ON and KEY OFF  pg123
    External-1.x, Internal-3.2+     To install a 32 character keyboard buffer
    for 400/800 computers.  Use XKEY for 2.x SpartaDOS.  Use KEY ON/OFF for
    SpartaDOS 3.2 and above.

LOAD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg56
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     This command loads any binary file into memory but
    does not run the file.  The standard Atari DOS RUN and INIT vectors are NOT
    acted on.

LOCK [Dn:] and UNLOCK [Dn:]   pg32
    Internal-2.x     The LOCK command locks the disk to prevent accidental
    erasure.  It is similar to the physical write protect tab which is put on
    the disk, but is strictly a software lock and only works when using CP
    version 2 disks.  UNLOCK disables the LOCK command.(Only affects 2.x
    disks).

MDUMP [address [#bytes]] [/P]   pg59
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility will display memory locations in
    HEX/ATASCII/ASCII format.  It is very similar to DUMP but works on blocks
    of memory rather than files.

MEM   pg53
    Internal-2.x     Displays MEMLO and MEMHI.

MEMLO   pg53
    External-1.x and 2.x     Displays only MEMLO.

MENU [R][n]   pg36
    External-2.x     This command give you most of the features of the command
    processor but in a menu form.  Its capable of single and multiple file
    functions.

MIOCFG [Dn:][path>]fname.ext [/SLN]  pg102

       S - save
       L - load with Ramdisk format
      LN - load without Ramdisk format
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command saves and reloads MIO
    configurations.

OFF LOAD [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] offset [/SNPQ]   or
OFF LOAD -R address [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg60
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command loads in files at an offset
    and optionally displays segment addresses, file position of beginning of
    segment and can query whether to load a given segment.  It may also be used
    to create non-relocatable versions of OFF_LOAD.

PAUSE   pg48
    External-1.x and 2.x     To temporarily halt execution of a batch file and




                                       82







    to prompt the user for a response (key press) to continue.

PORT [path>]fname[.ext]   pg46
    External-1.x and 2.x     To set speed, word size, stop bits, translation,
    input and output parity and EOL parameters for RS232 communications.

PRINT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [/A]   or 
PRINT d[n]:   or 
PRINT   pg50
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     Note: the /A option is allowed under CP version
    2.x only
    To echo all output that is written to the screen editor (E: through IOCB
    #0) to a specified output device.

PROKEY   pg104
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command shell adds 20 programmable
    function keys.

PROTECT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg31
    Internal-2.x     This command protects (locks) files from accidental
    erasure.  This only affects 2.x disks.

PUTRUN [Dn:]fname[.ext]   pg60
    External-1.x and 2.x     This command appends the RUN vector containing the
    start address of an external command file to the file.  This is to make a
    command such as MENU be able to run as an AUTORUN.SYS (when only RUN and
    INIT vectors are used).

RDBASIC Dn: (XL/XE computer with internal BASIC on required)   or
RD130 Dn: (130XE computer required)   or
RDAXLON Dn: (Axlon RamPower 128 in Atari 800 required)   pg20
    External-1.x and 2.x with restrictions     These commands install a RamDisk
    device (electronic disk) in the place of a drive.  Since these commands
    depend on specific hardware, the correct device must be present or an error
    will result.  Note: CP version 1.x allows up to 4 drives and CP version 2.x
    allows up to 8 drives.  See page 122 for SpartaDOS 3.2 Ramdisk files.

READ [Dn:][path>]fname.ext
    External-all     Puts ANY file to screen, one screen at a time until done.
    Press space bar for next screen.  Press 'Q' to quit any time.

RENAME [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] fname[.ext]   pg30
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     Changes the name of an existing file or files.

RENDIR [Dn:][path>]oldname newname  pg101
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command renames subdirectories.

RPM [Dn:]   pg55
    External-1.x and 2.x     To display the drive speed in RPMs for user
    information.

RTIME8   pg122
    External-all     Installs 'Z:' handler for use with R-Time 8 cartridge.
    For BASIC time access (pg130).




                                       83







RS232   pg45
    External-1.x and 2.x     Loads the RS232 handler for the 850 interface.

RUN [address]   pg57
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     To re-execute the last .COM file or execute at a
    given address.  To load and run a binary file see Command Files.

SAVE [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext] [/A] address address   pg57
    Internal-1.x and 2.x, the /A option is allowed under CP version 2.x only
    This command saves binary data from memory to disk.  To append data, see
    the APPEND command, or with CP version 2.x use the /A option.

SCOPY Dn:[[path>]sourcefname] [/UR] Dn:[[path>]destfname] [/UR]   pg124

       U - US Doubler sector skew copied
       R - Ramdisk identifier
    External-all     Compacts diskette into file, expands file into diskette
    and performs straight sector copies.

SET [mm/dd/yy] [hh/mm/ss] (for use with TIME command)   or
TSET [mm/dd/yy] [hh/mm/ss] (for use with TD or XTD commands)   pg41
    External-1.x and 2.x     These commands allow the user to set the time and
    date after installing the clock with the TIME, TD or XTD commands.

SORTDIR [Dn:][path>] [/NTSDX]   pg103

       N - name (fname)
       T - type (extension)
       S - size
       D - date
       X - reverse sorting order

        External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command sorts directories by
    name, extension, size and date.

SPCOPY or XCOPY   pg27
    External-1.x and 2.x     These commands are used for single or dual drive
    file transfers between SpartaDOS and/or Atari DOS 2 compatible formats with
    few restrictions on density and number of tracks.  This is the way to
    convert Atari DOS 2 files to SpartaDOS or the reverse of this.  Since
    translation is already built into CP version 2.x, use the smaller XCOPY
    with that version of DOS.

TD[X] (for use with R-Time 8 cartridge)   or
TIME[X] (for use with system clock)   or
XTD (for use with R-Time 8)   pg42   or
TIME (to display and set time for 3.2+ only)   or
TD ON/OFF (turns on display line for 3.2+   or
TDLINE (installs external display line TD controls.  3.2+ only)   pg121, 122
    External-1.x and 2.x, Internal-3.2+     TD and XTD are used with ICD's R-
    Time 8 cartridge to install the hardware clock.  XTD installs the R-Time 8
    without a display and TD installs it with the date and time displayed at
    the top of the screen.  TIME installs the clock built into the Atari which
    is not very accurate and must be set upon system boot.  The X parameter




                                       84







    will turn the time and date display off but keep the clock installed.  3.2+
    - see pg 122.

TREE [Dn:][path] [/F]   pg24
    External-1.x and 2.x     To display all the directory paths found on the
    disk or under the specified directory, and to optionally list the files
    found in each directory in alphabetical order.

TYPE [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg49
    Internal-1.x and 2.x     To display the contents of an ASCII file.
    Commonly used to read a batch file without executing it.  Does not disturb
    the contents of memory like COPY to E:

UNERASE [Dn:][path>][fname[.ext]]   pg30
    External-1.x and 2.x     To restore a file that has been erase.

UNPROTECT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]   pg32
    Internal-2.x     This command unprotects (unlocks) files from accidental
    erasure.  This only affects 2.x disks.

VDEL [Dn:][path>]fname.ext  pg102
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command deletes many files at once
    with wild cards, query and report.

VERIFY ON or VERIFY OFF   pg63
    Internal-2.x     This command changes the write mode to write with verify
    or write without verify.

WHEREIS [Dn:]fname.ext [/D]   pg102

       D - display
    External-1.x and 2.x     This utility command will find a full or partial
    file name anywhere on your drives.  Option 'D' displays all matches in full
    SpartaDOS type directory listing.

XDIV   pg51
    Internal-2.x     The XDIV command is used with CP version 2.x to disable
    batch processing and the PRINT command (redirection of I/O).  This may be
    necessary in order to run certain programs.  If Using CP version 1.x, see
    DIS_BAT.

XKEY   pg52
    External-1.x and 2.x     To install a 32 character keyboard buffer for
    XL/XE computers.  

XINIT   pg16
    External-1.x and 2.x     This is the command to initialize (format) a
    SpartaDOS 2.x disk.

ZHAND   pg123
    External-3.2+ ONLY     Installs 'Z:' handler for use with R-Time 8
    cartridge.  For BASIC time access (pg130).






                                       85







__________________________
APPENDIX C___Table of all SpartaDOS Command Processor Commands

        Command  Internal  Works External May Use Locates  Remains  Initial
        Name    |Cmd |Cmd |w/2.0|Sparta  |RUN to |Itself  |Resident|Load
    page        |V1.x|V2.x|Disk |Command |reEnter|at MEMLO|at MEMLO|Address
        --------|----|----|-----|--------|-------|--------|--------|--------
     22 ?DIR    | no | yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     18 AINIT   | no | yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     58 APPEND  | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     45 AT_RS232| no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
    127 AUTOBAT |3.2+|only|     | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     15 BASIC   | no | yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     20 BOOT    | no | yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     53 BUFS    | yes| no |     | no     |       |        |        |
    126 BYPASS  | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$3000
     15 CAR     | yes| yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     54 CHKDSK  | no | yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     43 CHTD    | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     31 CHVOL   | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
    112 CLEANUP | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$2600
     25 COPY    | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     22 CREDIR  | yes| yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     23 CWD     | yes| yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
    121 DATE    |3.2+|only|     | no     |       |        |        |
     23 DELDIR  | yes| yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     14 DIR     | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     14 DIRS    | no | yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     51 DIS_BAT | no | no |     | yes    |       |        |        |$5000
    107 DISKRX  | no | no | yes | yes    |       |        |        |$3000
    103 DOSMENU | no | no | yes | yes    |       |        |        |$4000
     58 DUMP    | no | no |(1)  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     28 DUPDSK  | no | no | no  | yes    | yes   | yes    | no     |$5000
     29 ERASE   | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     19 FORMAT  | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$6000
     16 INIT    | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$6000
     52 KEY     | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
    123 KEY     |3.2+|only|     | no     |       |        |        |
     56 LOAD    | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     32 LOCK    | no | yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     59 MDUMP   | no | no |     | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     53 MEM     | no | yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     53 MEMLO   | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$5000
     36 MENU    | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | yes    | (2)    |$5000
    102 MIOCFG  | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$4000
     60 OFF_LOAD| no | no | (3) | yes    | no    | yes    | no     |$B400
     48 PAUSE   | no | yes|     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$5000
     46 PORT    | no | no |     | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     50 PRINT   | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
    104 PROKEY  | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$4000
     31 PROTECT | no | yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     60 PUTRUN  | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     20 RD130   | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$3C00
     20 RDAXLON | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$3C00




                                       86







        Command  Internal  Works External May Use Locates  Remains  Initial
        Name    |Cmd |Cmd |w/2.0|Sparta  |RUN to |Itself  |Resident|Load
    page        |V1.x|V2.x|Disk |Command |reEnter|at MEMLO|at MEMLO|Address
        --------|----|----|-----|--------|-------|--------|--------|--------
     20 RDBASIC | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
     83 READ    | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$3000
     30 RENAME  | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
    101 RENDIR  | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     55 RPM     | no | no |     | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
    122 RTIME8  | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |
     45 RS232   | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
     57 RUN     | yes| yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     57 SAVE    | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
    124 SCOPY   | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$3000
     41 SET     | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$5000
    103 SORTDIR | no | no | no  | yes    | no    |        |        |$4000
     27 SPCOPY  | no | no | yes | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$3000
     42 TD      | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
    122 TD      | no | no | no  | no     | no    |        |        |
    122 TDLINE  |3.2+|only| no  | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
     40 TIME    | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
    121 TIME    |3.2+|only| no  | no     | no    |        |        |
     24 TREE    | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     43 TSET    | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$5000
     49 TYPE    | yes| yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
     30 UNERASE | no | no | no  | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
     33 UNLOCK  | no | yes| no  | no     |       |        |        |
     32 UNPROTEC| no | yes| yes | no     |       |        |        |
    102 VDEL    | no | no | yes | yes    | no    |        |        |$5000
     63 VERIFY  | no | yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
    102 WHEREIS | no | no | yes | yes    | no    |        |        |$3000
     28 XCOPY   | no | no | (4) | yes    | yes   | yes    | no     |$5000
     51 XDIV    | no | yes|     | no     |       |        |        |
     52 XKEY    | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
     16 XINIT   | no | no |     | yes    | yes   | no     | no     |$4180
     42 XTD     | no | no |     | yes    | no    | yes    | yes    |$5000
    123 ZHAND   |3.2+|only|     | yes    | no    | no     | no     |$5000
   ------------------------------------------------------------------
 1) Cannot use a start offset when dumping a file from an Atari DOS 2 type
    disk.
 2) Remains resident when using the [R] parameter.
 3) Cannot use N or Q options with Atari DOS 2 type disk.
 4) Only with version 2.x SpartaDOS in system.



__________________________
APPENDIX D___How to Access the Real Time Clock

SpartaDOS keeps the internal time and date clock running and stores the values
in memory.  These can be used in your applications programs whenever access to
time or date is desired.  The values are stored in COMTAB+13 to COMTAB+18.  The
pointer to the COMTAB location is stored at DOSVEC (locations 10 and 11).





                                       87







     COMTAB+13=location of day
     COMTAB+14=location of month
     COMTAB+15=year
     COMTAB+16=hours (24 hour format)
     COMTAB+17=minutes
     COMTAB+18=seconds

The BASIC program below will display these values.  It was written as a plain
and simple example for those starting out in BASIC or new to programming the
Atari.  To read the time and date values use PEEK and to change the values use
POKE.

10 CMTAB=PEEK(10)+PEEK(11)*256
20 FOR T=13 TO 18
30 ? PEEK(CMTAB+T)
40 NEXT T

Note: A special SpartaDOS handler is used with the TD, XTD and TSET commands to
access our optional R-Time 8 clock/calendar cartridge.  This automatically
updates the internal real time clock used by DOS.  Since the cartridge is very
difficult to read directly, we recommend you read it with the proper handler
installed through the DOS locations as shown in the above example.



__________________________
APPENDIX E___Atari DOS 2 VS SpartaDOS

Atari DOS 2 menu and SpartaDOS equivalents

Atari's menu                  SpartaDOS Semi Equivalent
A.  Disk Directory             DIR
B.  Run Cartridge              CAR
C.  Copy File                  COPY
D.  Delete File                ERASE
E.  Rename file                RENAME
F.  Lock file                  PROTECT (see unerase)
G.  Unlock file                UNPROTECT (see FORMAT/INIT/XINIT
I.  Format disk                FORMAT/XINIT/INIT/AINIT
J.  Duplicate disk             DUPDSK
K.  Binary save                SAVE/APPEND
L.  Binary Load                LOAD/OFF_LOAD/fname
M.  Run at address             RUN
N.  Create mem.sav             (not needed with resident DOS)
O.  Duplicate file             SPCOPY/XCOPY


SpartaDOS Commands With no Atari DOS 2 Equivalent

?DIR      AT_RS232  BASIC     Batch files    BOOT
BUFS      CHKDSK    CHTD      CHVOL          CREDIR
CWD       DELDIR    DIS_BAT   DUMP           FORMAT
INIT      KEY       LOCK      MDUMP          MEM
MEMLO     OFF_LOAD  PAUSE     PORT           PRINT




                                       88







PUTRUN    RD130     RDAXLON   RDBASIC        RPM
SET       SPCOPY    TD        TIME           TREE
TSET      TYPE      UNERASE   UNLOCK         VERIFY
XCOPY     XDIV      XINIT     XKEY           XTD

A Few Other Major Advantages
SpartaDOS supports all densities and possible configuration for the Atari
Computer line.  There is no need to configure your drive for a particular
density as it automatically checks format when reading.

Time and date stamping is available for all files including support of our
hardware real time clock (R-Time 8).

UltraSpeed I/O is supported with appropriate drive hardware.

RS232 Handlers are included for communications using the Atari 850 interface or
the ATR8000 interface.

The SPCOPY command allows file transfer in batches from any density to any
density using one or two drives and automatically translates in both directions
to or from SpartaDOS.  SpartaDOS version 2.x even includes the full Atari DOS 2
handler with several added features.

SpartaDOS has full subdirectory support.

         ...and much much more!



__________________________
APPENDIX F___US DOUBLER Installation

Brief Overview
The US Doubler consists of two plug in modules which are to be installed in
your 1050 drive.  One of these is a 24 pin chip (U10) and the other is a hybrid
24 pin module (U8).  These are to be installed into the corresponding sockets
on the 1050s printed circuit board (PCB).  Atari is currently selling 1050s
with two different types of U10 chips.  The replacement U10 supplied by ICD, is
the most common type found.  If it is the wrong type for your drive, you can
either move two jumpers (which requires soldering) or send us your ICD-U10 for
an exchange with the other type.

Before Installing
Be sure to fill out your warranty card and mail it in.  This is the only way we
will be able to notify you of changes and updates, and the only way you will be
eligible for upgrades.  Please, take the time to fill in your Atari dealers
name and address, so we can make him aware of our products for the Atari.

If after reading these instructions you feel this installation is not for you,
then talk to your local dealer or service center about it, or send us the
drive.  ICD will install this product for $15.00 including UPS ground shipping
one way.  This low price is good only before you attempt to install the US
Doubler.  For later services see our prices at the end of this appendix.  For
installation by ICD, send and mark the box to:




                                       89







     ICD, Inc.
     1220 Rock Street
     Rockford, IL 61101-1437
     Attn: 1050 Install

Please include a check for $15.00, the complete drive less cable and power
supply, and the ICD product.  Our turn around is general 48 hours.  Do you
still want to install it?



Tools needed
#2 Phillips head screwdriver
#1 Phillips head screwdriver (for some drives made in Hong Kong)
Medium/small flat blade screwdriver
A permanent ink marking pen for marking connectors during disassembly
An empty dish for holding parts
A clean well lighted work surface
Small needle nose pliers
20-35 watt small tipped soldering iron (optional)


COVER REMOVAL
Turn the 1050 on its back and remove the 6 screws.  (4 are recessed and two are
on the front).  Place the screws into your dish.

Carefully turn the drive back on its feet and set it down.  Lift the rear of
the top cover about 1/2 inch then slide it towards the front and lift the cover
off as one piece.  Set these aside.


THINGS TO LOOK FOR
Notice how the drive assembly sits in the case and note the 4 black rubber
washers under the drive frame.  These usually fall out when removing the drive.
Some Hong Kong drives have these glued down.  There are also 4 steel pins at
the center of these washers which fall out during disassembly of the early 1050
drives (they are glued in on later drives).  Notice the wires which connect the
drive to its PCB towards the rear.  These should all be marked with J14, J10
etc, on the connectors.  The markings correspond with markings on the PCB but
they don't always indicate the proper polarity.  Take your marker and draw a
line across the inside of each connector.  We will then know when we plug them
back in that the side with the black line goes towards center.  Do the same on
all other connectors (there is one under the front of the drive frame).  We are
now ready for the heavy work.

IMPORTANT: Some Hong Kong drives have connectors with no markings and color
coded wires.  If this is your situation you will need to make a chart
indicating the color pattern for each connector before you unplug them.


REMOVE THE DRIVE (OPTIONAL)
Actually, it is not always necessary to unplug the wires from the PCB.  You can
leave the drive plugged to the board as long as you are very careful with the
wires.  They are small and will break if too much stress is applied.  If you




                                       90







choose to leave the drive plugged in (we usually do), then proceed to REMOVE
THE PCB, otherwise, read on.

Carefully unplug all seven connectors while noting their positioning.  DON'T
pull on the wires, DO pull on the plastic connectors.  A small needle nose
pliers can make this easier for tight fitting connectors.  After removing the
wires, lift the drive frame up and out of the case and set it aside.  Put the 4
rubber spacers and the 4 steel pins (if they're loose) in your parts dish.


REMOVE THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) you are now looking at the PCB.  The
Chips (ICs) to be replaced are under that large tin cover (shield) which is
fastened on the foil side (the bottom side) of the PCB with twisted metal tabs.
This shield was designed to reduce RFI (interference with TVs, radios etc).
The PCB is held down to the case with either, 4 plastic tabs or two plastic
tabs, or 3 small Phillips screws and 3 brown insulating washers.  If you have
screws holding the board down (most Hong Kong drives do), remove these first.
If you have tabs, I find it easiest to lift the front of the PCB while bending
the tabs with my other hand.  The PCB needs to go slightly towards the front
then out of the case.  Place the PCB with its component side down on your work
area.  If the drive is still attached to the PCB you begin your balancing act.


REMOVE THE METAL SHIELD
The bottom shield on the foil side of the PCB is symmetrical but the top shield
has a notched out area in one corner.  This notch is for clearance of the
solder connections on components R43 and U14.  Straighten the tabs and remove
the two shields.  Turn the PCB over, component side up and get ready for fun.
(If the drive is attached you are lifting it off the board with one hand while
working with the other).


REMOVE THE OLD ICs
The two 24 pin ICs, U8 and U10, must be removed.  Use the flat bladed
screwdriver and gently pry the chips out of their sockets and set them aside.
These two will not be used again.


CHECK THE JUMPERS

This is the most important installation step and where most mistakes are made,
so pay attention!  JP1 through JP7 are the jumper wires behind U10.  In most
installations, only some of the JP (jumper) numbers will be visible.  The other
numbers are usually hidden under the jumpers themselves.  These jumpers might
be solid pieces of wire soldered between two pads or a wire with a white
ceramic covering around the center or they might look just like resistors.  It
does not matter which type is installed, they all serve the same purpose.  The
position of the first 4 jumpers (JP1-JP4) determines which type of U10 chip you
will need.  We're not sure why Atari used the jumper system when the 1050 drive
was designed.  Maybe it was so they could switch chip types when one became
more cost effective.  There are many manufacturers of both types of chips and
each works as well as the other for this application.  The only difference is
pin configuration, which is what the jumpers change.





                                       91







If the replacement U10 HAS a paper label on it, then JP1 and JP3 should be open
(no connection) and JP2/JP4 should be closed (jumpered).  If the replacement
U10 does NOT have a paper label, then JP2/JP4 should be open (no connection,
JP1/JP3 should be closed (jumpered).  Every effort has been made by ICD to
provide you with the most common type of U10 chip.  Recently (May 1985) we have
found that most drives Made in Singapore need the U10 without the paper label
and most Made in Hong Kong need the U10 with the label.  The U10 which comes
with the drive will usually also either have a paper label or not, this should
match the corresponding ICD U10 needed.  The only sure way to tell is to check
those jumpers!

If your replacement U10 is of the wrong type, you have two options, 1) Send us
the ICD U10 (in protective packing) along with $1.00 for shipping and handing
and mark on the outside Attn:U10.  When we receive this, we will send the other
type of U10 which you can then plug in.  2) Move the jumpers to the correct
locations for the ICD U10 chip in your possession.  Do not attempt this
modification unless you feel confident with a soldering iron.  The other
jumpers JP5/JP7 should always remain unmoved.


PLUG IN THE CHIPS
For correct positioning, the notches at the ends of the modules (chips) go
towards the front of the drive.  Also, as a general rule, any labels or writing
on your ICD replacement chips will read from the front of the drive to the
rear.  Now carefully plug the new U8 (the larger module) into the socket for
U8.  Next, carefully plug the new U10 into its socket with the notch towards
the front of the PCB.  Make sure all the pins went into the correct holes in
the sockets.  Wasn't that easy?


REASSEMBLY

PUT THE SHIELD BACK ON
If you are unsure of what you are doing then you might want to leave the metal
shield off for testing.  If you haven't had any problems following us so far
then its all down hill from here.  Be careful installing the shield and make
sure the notched end of the top piece is over R43 and U14.  Also make sure that
no components or wires are pinched between the shield and the PCB.

PUT THE PCB BACK INTO THE CASE
Place the rear in first, and then lower the front of the PCB.  The PCB should
easily snap in place under the plastic tabs.  (Install the 3 washers and screws
if your drive had them).

REINSTALL THE RUBBER WASHERS and STEEL PINS (IF REMOVED)
Press the 4 rubber washers with the recessed side down, onto the plastic posts
in the front half of the drives case.  The 4 steel pins are either still stuck
in the plastic posts or if they were loose (older drives) take them from your
parts dish and put one into each hole at the center of the rubber washers.

REINSTALL THE FRAME
Plug the connector from the drive head onto J6 at the front of the PCB.
Carefully lower the drive frame onto the steel pins noting that the steel pins
fit into holes in the drive frame.




                                       92







PLUG IN THE CONNECTORS
Plug the rest of the connectors onto the corresponding pin locations.  Be sure
to note the marking you made on the connectors during disassembly.  If you
didn't unplug your drive from the PCB, you can skip this instruction.

REPLACE THE TOP COVER
To replace the top cover, first line up the bezel over the front of the drive
frame, and then lower the cover.  If the bezel becomes separated, put the top
cover on first, then hook the top of the bezel under the top cover front edge,
and gently snap it down into place.  While holding the case together turn the
drive upside down and lay it on its back.  Screw the 6 screws back into place
and presto!

You're Done!


STARTUP and TESTING
Plug the drive back into your system.  If you are going to use UltraSpeed (US),
it is better to make this drive number one, so you can boot up from this drive.
Put a SpartaDOS master disk into the drive, close the door and power up the
computer.  If you get an error message 'Not an XL/XE computer', then use the
other master disk.  Impressed?  The MASTER SpartaDOS disks are single density
US format.  The first few sectors are read at normal speed upon boot, the
software determines whether the drive can handle UltraSpeed and then loads the
high speed code into your computer.  Even though double density sounds slightly
slower than single density, the double density US format is even faster since
it is working with larger sectors.

IF IT DOESN'T WORK
Go over the instructions again and check your work.  All of our products are
thoroughly tested before shipping for high reliability.  There is probably
something you overlooked.  If the U8 module is in backwards or not making a
good connection, or if the jumpers are in the wrong position, the power light
will come on but the drive will not spin.  You can use the new U8 with your old
U10 but not visa versa.  If your drive won't boot the master DOS disk, then try
a standard boot disk of known quality.  If you still cant get it to work, send
your drive with the MASTER SpartaDOS disk to us for repair.

Our service turn around time is generally 48 hours.  If there is a problem with
our parts there will be no charges.  If there is a problem with your
installation you will be charged a $25.00 flat rate including shipping.  If
there is a problem with the drive itself, our standard service rate is $40.00
plus parts and shipping.  In any case we will send the repaired drive back to
you via UPS COD.


SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Format
Though the US Doubler is optimized for operation with SpartaDOS, any Atari
compatible DOS should function with it properly.  When changing from SpartaDOS
to another brand of DOS and using the format command, first turn the drive
power off, and then back on (cold start) to re-initialize the internal format
settings.  Failure to do this could create format errors with the other DOS.




                                       93







__________________________
APPENDIX G___US DOUBLER INTERFACE

The following is a list of the SIO commands of the US Doubler and their usage.


__________________________
READ SECTOR
Command: R($52)
AUX 1:   Sector number to read (low byte)
AUX 2:   Sector number to read (high byte)

Notes:   The read (R) command operates exactly like any Atari drive.  The data
         frame (sector size) received will depend upon the density/size of the
         disk.  The US Doubler automatically adjusts to a new sector size when
         a disk is inserted into the drive.  Sectors 1-3 will always be 128
         bytes long.  To determine the size, a status command must be executed,
         or (as in SpartaDOS), the size must be included somewhere within
         sectors 1 through 3.


__________________________
WRITE SECTOR
Command: Verify:W($57)-No Verify:P($50)
AUX 1:   Sector number to write (low byte)
AUX 2:   Sector number to write (high byte)

Notes:   The write (W and P) commands operate exactly like any other drive.
         The data frame (sector size) sent is dependent upon the density/size
         of the disk.  The Doubler automatically adjusts to a new sector size
         when a disk is inserted.  Sectors 1-3 will always be 128 bytes long.
         To determine the size, a status command must be executed, or (as in
         SpartaDOS), the size must be included somewhere within sectors 1
         though 3.


__________________________
STATUS
Command: S($53)
AUX 1:   --not used--
AUX 2:   --not used--

Notes:   The status (S) command returns the status of the last operation
         (Controller status), the current operating status and the approximate
         timeout value for a format command.  A data frame of 4 bytes is
         returned by this command.  They are as follows:

   Byte 0: This is the controller status after the last command.  A $FF
         indicates a good operation.  (This is actually the 1's complement of
         the controllers status register-this is a bug propagated down from the
         old 810 drives).  The bits have the following meaning:

             Bit 0: BUSY--Should always be 1 (high)
             Bit 1: DRQ--Should always be 1 (high)




                                       94







             Bit 2: LOST DATA--Should always be 1 (high)
             Bit 3: CRC ERROR--This indicates that there was an error in the
                    last sector read if 0 (low).  If combined with Bit 4 being
                    low, the sector header exists but is unreadable (this means
                    the sector may not be written either).
             Bit 4: RECORD NOT FOUND--The sector doesn't exist if this bit is 0
                    (low).
             Bit 5: RECORD TYPE--If 0 (low), a special write command was given
                    when last sector was written.  A normal drive won't create
                    this type of sector (unmodified).  Note the data is
                    correct, its a method of protection some publishers use.
             Bit 6: WRITE PROTECT--If 0 (low), the disk was write protected.
                    Should not happen since a write is never issued to the
                    controller if protected.  On reads, this bit is always 1.
             Bit 7: NOT READY--Drive door is open if low (0).

   Byte 1: The status the CPU generates indicating the following things:
             Bit 0: COMMAND FRAME--A 1 (high) indicates the last command frame
                    was in error.  NOT USED BY THE US DOUBLER--always 0.
             Bit 1: CHECKSUM--A 1 (high) indicates that the last command/data
                    frame checksum was in error.  NOT USED BY THE US DOUBLER-
                    always 0.
             Bit 2: OPERATION--A 1 indicates the last operation was in error
                    (bad sector, etc.)  NOT USED BY THE DOUBLER-always 0.
             Bit 3: WRITE PROTECT--The disk is CURRENTLY write protected if
                    this bit is a 1.
             Bit 4: MOTOR ON--The disk is CURRENTLY spinning if this bit is a
                    1.
             Bit 5: SIZE--The sector size is 256 bytes (double density) if this
                    bit is a 1.
             Bit 6: --not used--
             Bit 7: 1050 Enh mode--This bit is 1 if in DD, but the sectors are
                    128 bytes long (enhanced density).

   Byte 2: The timeout value used when formatting by the computers SIO
         routine.

   Byte 3: --unused-always zero--


__________________________
FORMAT DISK (General Format Command)
Command: !($21)
AUX 1:   not used
AUX 2:   not used

Notes:   This command formats a disk in either double or single density.  A
         data frame of 128 bytes (if 128 byte sector format) or of 256 bytes
         (if 256 byte sector format) is returned.  The DOUBLER doesn't return
         the bad sector list.  The first two bytes in the data frame will be
         $FF $FF.







                                       95







__________________________
FORMAT DISK (1050 enhanced density)
Command: '($22)
AUX 1:   --not used--
AUX 2:   --not used--

Notes:   This command formats a disk in 1050 enhanced density.  A data frame of
         128 bytes is returned.  The DOUBLER doesn't return the bad sector
         list.  The first 2 bytes in the data frame will be $FF $FF.


__________________________
CUSTOM FORMAT
Command: f($66)
AUX 1:   --not used--
AUX 2:   --not used--

Notes:   This command formats a disk in single/double/enhanced density modes
         AND allows the user to specify the sector ordering.  The computer
         sends a data frame of 128 bytes to the drive.  The first 12 bytes are
         the configuration bytes, and the next 18-26 bytes are the sector
         numbers in order.  The STANDARD sequences are as follows:

         Single density 17,15,13,11,9,7,5,3,1,18,16,14,12,10,8,6,4,2.

         Double density 18,17,16,15,14,13,12,11,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1.

         Enhanced density
         1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26.


         The standard ULTRASPEED sector skews are:
         Single density 4,8,12,16,1,5,9,13,17,2,6,10,14,18,3,7,11,15

         Double density 1,14,9,4,17,12,7,2,15,10,5,18,13,8,3,16,11,6

         Enhanced density
         4,8,12,16,20,24,1,5,9,13,17,21,25,2,6,10,14,18,22,26,3,7,11,15,19,23.


__________________________
RETURN CONFIGURATION
Command: N($4E)
AUX 1:   --not used--
AUX 2:   --not used--

Notes:   This command returns a 12 byte configuration table.  This indicates
         the configuration the drive will format the next time a '!' format
         command is given.  Refer to the 'O' (set drive configuration) command
         for definition of the 12 byte table.


__________________________
SET DRIVE CONFIGURATION




                                       96







Command: O($4F)
AUX 1:   --not used--
AUX 2:   --not used--

Notes:   This command sets the configuration for the next format command.  The
         computer sends the drive a 12 byte data frame which consists of the
         following:

    +0-Number of tracks (not used)-returns a 40
    +1-Step rate (not used) - returns a 1
    +2-Sectors/track high byte (not used) - returns a 0
    +3-Sectors/track low byte - returns an 18 or 26
    +4-Max head number (not used) - returns a 0
    +5-Density - 0 if single, 4 if double
    +6-Bytes/sector high byte - 1 if 256, 0 if 128
    +7-Bytes/sector low byte - 0 if 256, 128 if 128
    +8-Drive present flag (not used) - returns 255
    +9-not used - returns a 0
   +10-not used - returns a 0
   +11-not used - returns a 0


__________________________
RETURN HIGH SPEED INDEX
Command: ?($3F)
AUX1:    --not used--
AUX2:    --not used--

Notes:   This command returns a 1 byte speed index.  This is the value which is
         used in the frequency register controlling the high speed SIO.  The US
         DOUBLER currently returns a 10.



__________________________
APPENDIX H___DISKS


FORMAT STRUCTURE
Format on a single sided single density (SSSD) Atari drive consists of 40
tracks of 18 sectors each.  Each sector holds 128 bytes but other DOS's use 3
of these bytes for mapping.  Some of these sectors are also reserved for file
management.  SpartaDOS gives you 713 sectors of 128 bytes each for your use
compared to 707 sectors of 125 bytes with Atari DOS 2.  The raw SSSD format
yields 92160 bytes per disk (90 KB).

1050 'Enhanced Density' (1050ED) consists of 40 tracks of 28 sectors each.
Each sector also has 128 bytes but is shorter in physical length.  The raw
1050ED format yields 143360 bytes per disk (140KB).

Single Sided, Double Density (SSDD) uses 40 tracks of 18 sectors each but each
sector stores 256 bytes.  The raw SSDD format yields 184320 bytes per disk
(180KB).





                                       97







__________________________
APPENDIX I___GLOSSARY

ADDRESS      a location in memory.
APPEND       to add on to.
ASCII        American Standard Code for Information Interchange which uses 7
              bits to define a one byte code from 0- 127 decimal (0-$7F).
ATASCII      A superset version of ASCII used only with the Atari computer.
BANK         predetermined size block of memory.
BATCH        a batch file is a file containing a group of commands to be
              executed consecutively.
BAUD RATE    speed for data transmission.
BINARY       the BASE 2 numbering system.
BIT          a binary digit-either a 0 or 1
BOOTUP       refers to system INIT which sets up the computer when powering
              up.
BUFFER       any block of memory specifically set aside for use as temporary
              storage.
BYTE         the amount of information a computer can process in one cycle-the
              Atari byte=8 bits.  The byte represents a number from 0-255 (0-
              $FF in Hex).
CIO          Central Input/Output.  One part of the operating system that
              handles I/O.
COLD START   to start up the computer as if just powered up.
COMMAND      communication given from the human to the computer directing it to
              perform an action.
CP           Command processor.  The software interface between the keyboard
              handler and the DOS which allows the user to communicate with the
              DOS when entering a command line.  When the command is entered,
              the CP will translate the command into information the DOS can
              understand and react upon accordingly.
CPU          Central Processing Unit.  The intelligence of a computer system
CRC          Cyclic Redundancy Check.  A method of data transfer error
              detection.  As data bits are being transferred, they are
              manipulated mathematically to yield a highly sensitive error
              detection code that is appended to the data.
CURSOR       the pointer on the screen that marks where you are.
DATA         information generally used or operated on by a program.
DEBUG        to isolate and eliminate errors from a program.
DECIMAL      Base 10 numbering system, not very useful to computers unless
              translated to Hex or binary, but easy for humans to understand.
DEFAULT      standard condition or value that exists upon running a file.
DENSITY      generally the number of bytes per sector is the disk density,
              single being 128, double being 256 bytes per sector.  Actually
              density specifies the number of bytes per track on a disk.
DEVICE       Atari devices are Dn:,E,S,R,P,C, referring to drive (n=drive
              number), editor portion of the screen display, the screen, the
              RS232 device for communications, the printer and the cassette
              storage device.
DIRECTORY    list of all files.
DOS          Disk Operating System, the program which manages the I/O to and
              from the computer.
DMA          Direct Memory Access.  DMA controls information flow directly into
              or out of memory without the intervention of the CPU.  This




                                       98







              causes data transfers to take place at a much greater speed than
              is possible with the CPU handling each byte of data.
DRIVER       same as HANDLER, a program written to specifically handle one
              particular device or operation.
FILE         a collection of information usually stored as a named unit on a
              disk.
FILESPEC     FILE SPECification.  The information required in a command line to
              properly identify a particular file or group of files.
FORMAT       the guidelines for the way in which the magnetic structure of the
              disk is written.
HANDLER      a program written to handle a device.
HARDCOPY     printed on paper.
HARDWARE     computer, disk drives, printers are hardware..programs are
              software.
HEADER       the first few bytes of a program which tell it where it should be
              located, what type of program it is and how it should be used.
Hex          base 16 numbering system which includes 16 unique single digits
              used for counting.
ICD          Innovative Computer Design, the company which wrote and designed
              SpartaDOS, the US Doubler, the R-Time 8 and other fine products
              for the Atari Computer.
I/O          Input/Output, this is what ties a computer to the outside world.
IOCB         Input/Output Control Block.  A 16 byte block of reserved memory
              which acts as a parameter passing window for I/O functions.
K            In the computer world, one K or kilo is equal to two to the tenth
              power or 1024.
KLUDGE       a 'rube Goldberg' of software.  A very complicated and confusing
              way of doing something relatively simple.
LANGUAGE     a program which makes it easier or faster in one way or another to
              program.  BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, Assembler are all languages.
MACHINE CODE the lowest level programming language but also the fastest
              running
MODEM        MOdulator/DEModulator.  A device which converts data from a form
              which is compatible with computers to a form which is compatible
              with phone systems and vice-versa.
NESTED       fitted within similar things.
OS           Operating System, usually a ROM based, machine language program
              that handles interrupts for the screen, keyboard etc.,
              maintaining interaction between all devices, allowing the
              computer to work in the first place.
PATH         trail or course taken from one place to another.
PARALLEL     the transfer, processing or manipulation of all the bits in a byte
              simultaneously by using separate lines for each bit.
PERIPHERAL   external device connected to your computer.
PORT         a place of access to a system.  ie. the serial communications port
              or the parallel joystick ports.
PROGRAM      a set of instructions to tell the computer how to accomplish some
              certain task.
PROMPT       a signal to the user that some action may be needed by them.
RAM          Random Access Memory.  The computer can read and write to this but
              it is lost when power goes down.
REAL TIME    relating to real time as on the standard clock, a real time
              program uses a clock.
RELOCATABLE  a program that can be moved to different areas in memory and still




                                       99







              function properly.
ROM          Read Only Memory.  Permanent memory that can only be read.
RS-232       communications interface standard designated by the Electronics
              Industries Association (EIA)
SECTOR       block of storage used on disk, can be 128 or 256 bytes with Atari
              formats.
SERIAL       data transfer occurring on one signal line.  The data bits are
              sent down the line sequentially.
SOFTWARE     programs of operation that allow a computer to function.
              Generally software refers to a program where hardware refers to
              circuitry.
SPARTA       a powerful city in ancient Greece, POWER!
SYNTAX       the organization or arrangement of elements as parts of a command
              line.
TPI          Tracks per inch, how densely data can be packed on a disk.
TRACK        a magnetic circle on the disk which contains the pattern of
              sectors.  There are 40 tracks on a standard Atari formatted
              disk.
TRUNCATED    cut short.
VARIABLE     something that changes or has no fixed value.
WARM START   a SYSTEM RESET without wiping out memory as in a cold start.
WILD CARD    used when specifying filenames or pathnames to ease operator entry
              or select a certain range of names.  * and ? are the two valid
              wild cards.
WORD         an ordered set of chars which occupy one memory location.
              Generally an 8 bit computer word is 8 bits (1 byte), a 16 bit
              machine has a 16 bit word.
XIO          a general Input Output statement used in a program for Disk I/O
              and in graphics work.





























                                      100







__________________________
SPARTADOS TOOL KIT

This is an incredible collection of new, unreleased utilities written for all
SpartaDOS versions.  These are solid tools all written by the professional
programmers at ICD.  A few utilities may not be applicable to the older
SpartaDOS versions.  SpartaDOS ToolKit is a must for any serious SpartaDOS
user.  SpartaDOS ToolKit will help you get the most power out of SpartaDOS--the
most powerful DOS for 8-bit Atarii!

The included tools are:

RENDIR         renames subdirectories   pg101

VDEL           verify delete (prompts you to delete a file or not)   pg102

WHEREIS        find a filename fast (full or partial) anywhere on your drives
               pg102

MIOCFG         save and reload MIO configurations.   pg102

SORTDIR        sort directories by name, extension, size and date.   pg103

DISKRX         the SpartaDOS disk editor - edit sectors, trace files or sector
               maps in any density, rebuild directories, files etc.  Powerful!
               pg107

CLEANUP        detects SpartaDOS file structure defects, allows rebuilding of
               directory structure.  pg112

DOSMENU        a SpartaDOS menu for Atari DOS 2 lovers (painful for Command
               Processor lovers)   pg104

PROKEY         adds 20 'pf' (programmable function) keys, used for path prompt,
               screen color change, IBM style recall console keys and more to
               SpartaDOS.   pg104



__________________________
RENDIR Command
Purpose - This is a simple external command to rename SpartaDOS subdirectory
names.  Only the directory name is changed, there is no effect on the contents
of the directory.

Syntax
RENDIR [Dn:][path>]oldname newname

Remarks
'Oldname' and 'newname' may include extensions as desired.  RENDIR only allows
valid SpartaDOS filename characters.  No wildcards are allowed.  RENDIR is not
case sensitive, lowercase is converted to uppercase and inverse is converted to
non-inverse.





                                      101







__________________________
VDEL Command
Purpose - This is a simple command which prompts you whether or not the file
should be deleted.

Syntax
VDEL [Dn:][path>]filename.ext

Remarks
The 'filename.ext' will usually include or be replaced with wildcards.  That is
when VDEL becomes most powerful.  It will find any filename matches, display
each one and prompt you for a 'Y' or 'N' to delete or not.  <ESC> is also an
option if you want to quit the procedure.  At the end of the process, a message
appears reporting the number of files deleted.


__________________________
WHEREIS Command
Purpose - To quickly find a filename (full or partial) anywhere on your drives.
This becomes especially useful on a hard disk with multiple partitions or any
disk with subdirectories.  WHEREIS can search all directories on all drives for
filename matches.

Syntax
WHEREIS [Dn:]filename.ext [/D]

     D - display

Remarks
The 'filename.ext' may include wildcards as desired.  Any and all matches found
will be displayed with the full path from the root directory to the filename
match.  The number of matches found will be displayed at the end of the search.
Specifying the optional drive number 'Dn:' will limit the search to that
specific drive, otherwise, all drives will be checked.
The optional 'D' parameter will display the matching filenames as in the
SpartaDOS long form directory listing so you can see length, date and time, for
each file.


__________________________
MIOCFG Command
Purpose - To save and reload Multi I/O configurations.  Multi I/O
configurations may be saved as files and then reloaded as desired.  This is
especially useful for Multi I/O owners without hard drives since they
previously had no means to save a configuration.  Alternate configurations may
also be loaded as a quick alternative to manually changing the menu screens.

Syntax
MIOCFG [Dn:][path>]filename.ext [/SLN]

     S - save
     L - load with Ramdisk format
     LM - load without Ramdisk format





                                      102







Remarks
The 'filename.ext' may include wildcards as desired.  The first match will be
used.  The 'S', 'L' or 'LN' parameter is required and selects the mode of
operation.  Like most other SpartaDOS commands with '/' parameters, a space is
required between the end of the filename and the '/' character.  COPY with '/A'
APPEND is the only SpartaDOS exception.  All Multi I/O configuration menu
selections are saved in a file with the 'S' parameter.

When the file is reloaded using the 'L' mode, all MENU defaults are set up
according to the file loaded.  The Multi I/O Ramdisks are then automatically
reformatted using the default SpartaDOS type double density format.

When the file is reloaded using the 'LN' mode, no format is executed.  This
mode should not be used if the Ramdisk starting and ending sectors will be
changed.


__________________________
SORTDIR Command
Purpose - To sort directories by name, extension, date or size.  Directories
can now be sorted quickly and safely!  SORTDIR will quickly read the directory
specified, sort it according to the mode selected and rewrite the directory in
sorted order.  Forward and reverse sorts are supported as well as double
priorities in all modes (ie. TIME is a second priority to DATE when the '/D'
mode is selected).

Syntax
SORTDIR [Dn:][path>] [/NTSDX]

     N - name (filename)
     T - type (extension)
     S - size
     D - date
     X - reverse sorting order

Remarks
SORTDIR may be entered with the optional drive specifier or one of the optional
mode parameters.  If no drive specifier or mode parameter is entered, the list
of parameters and meanings is displayed.  A second parameter 'X' may be
included for a reverse (descending) sort.  'Sort Completed' is printed when the
sort is finished.

When sorting by name, type (.ext) is the second priority.  When sorting by
type, name is the second priority.  When sorting by size, filename is second
priority with type as third priority.  Numbers come before letters in sort
order.  Specifying the path will allow you to sort any directory on any drive
from any other directory.  Path, along with a simple batch file, will allow you
to sort multiple directories easily.


__________________________
DOSMENU Command
Purpose - A SpartaDOS menu for Atari DOS 2 lovers





                                      103







Syntax
DOSMENU

Remarks
This is a painless way for Atari DOS 2.0 or 2.5 addicts to use SpartaDOS.
DOSMENU is a Command Menu for SpartaDOS which loads in and replaces the Command
Processor user interface.  DOSMENU does take up some user RAM so some programs
may not be compatible with it (enter 'Y' then MEM to find out where MEMLO is).
Wildcards are supported by most commands.  Either a comma or a space may be
used as the delimiter when using Copy Rename, etc.  A sample menu display is
shown below.


     DOSMENU Ver 1.3 6-28-88
     (C) 1994 by FTe

     Directory 1-8 (Long), !-@ (Short)

     A. Disk Directory   L. Binary Load
     B. Run Cartridge    M. Run At Address
     C. Copy File        O. Make Directory
     D. Delete File      P. Pick Directory
     E. Rename File      Q. Kill Directory
     F. Lock File        T. Printer Off
     G. Unlock File      V. View File
     I. Format (Sparta)  X. Disk Info
     J. Duplicate Disk   Y. Do DOS Command
     K. Binary Save      Z. Reboot System


     Enter Command or Return For Menu:


The 'Format' command loads the SpartaDOS XINIT.COM file, so it must be
available on a disk if you are going to format.

The 'Duplicate Disk' selection requires DUPDSK.COM and DUPDSK requires disks to
be preformatted in matching densities (source and destination).

Most of the commands are using SpartaDOS XIO functions of internal SpartaDOS
commands.


__________________________
PROKEY Command
Purpose - This command shell adds 20 'pf' (programmable function) keys, used
for path prompt, screen color change, IBM style recall console keys and more to
SpartaDOS.

Syntax
PROKEY

Remarks
PROKEY.COM loads in and supports the SpartaDOS Command Processor with the




                                      104







following EXTRA commands and features.

PF Keys   The programmable function keys are used by holding down the control
          key and the appropriate number key <CONTROL + number>.  A second bank
          of functions are selected by the addition of the SHIFT key <CONTROL +
          SHIFT + number>.  These keys are programmed by typing 'PFn string'
          (where 'n' is the number and 'string' is the string of characters to
          be stored in the function key).  Valid 'PF' numbers are 1-20.  There
          may be up to 20 characters in the string.  Use the '@' character at
          the end of a string to execute a <RETURN>.

CLPF      Clears all 'PF' keys

PROKEY.BAT  Batch files are a natural way to load the PF keys.  Upon
          initialization, PROKEY looks for a file called PROKEY.BAT.  You can
          keep alternate sets of keys stored for use with ACTION!, BASIC etc.
          See our example batch files.

<CONTROL S>  If PF1 is loaded, <CONTROL + S> replaces its toggle function to
          start and stop screen scrolling.

<CONTROL C>  If PF3 is loaded, <CONTROL + C> replaces its normal function
          (marking end of files from E:)

BELL      The BELL command has been added to replace the normal <CONTROL + 2>
          function.  You would use this in batch files as a warning indicator,
          etc.

Screen Color  Entering either 'BLACK', 'GREEN' or 'BLUE', will change your
          display color which may help make it more readable (helps on
          monochrome also).  We prefer 'BLACK' for good resolution on our
          inexpensive monochrome monitors.

COLD or EXIT  The commands 'COLD' and 'EXIT' just do a 'cold start' of your
          computer system.  This is the same as typing in 'RUN E477' which many
          of you already know.  A cold start is about the same as turning the
          power off and on to your computer except for two distinct
          differences.

             o There is no waiting required on an expanded memory XL/XE for the
               RAM chips to bleed down and lose their memory.

             o The internal Ramdisk data is still there.  You can get at it by
               using RD.COM with the 'no format' parameter.

HELP or ?  The commands 'HELP' and '?' give you a brief help menu with a list
          of the available commands and/or features.

PATH      This is similar to the 'PROMPT' command in MSDOS.  'PATH ON' or 'PATH
          OFF' are the two valid commands.  With 'PATH ON', the directory path
          is displayed as part of the 'Dn:' prompt.  After every <RETURN>, a
          '?DIR' type query is done through SpartaDOS, the drive is read and
          the path displayed.





                                      105







IBM Mode   If IBM mode is on ('IBM ON'), PROKEY will emulate the use of cursor
          keys like MSDOS does.  Each key press operates on the 'last line
          buffer', that is, the last command line that you entered into PROKEY.
          To turn IBM mode off, type 'IBM OFF'.

          These special editing keys are as follows:

             <Right arrow>  The right arrow key will pull the next character
                            from the last line buffer and place it into the
                            current line.

             <Left arrow>   Will backspace one position (identical to the
                            <BACKSPACE> key).

             <CONTROL +
             INSERT>        Will place you into 'insert mode'.  All key presses
                            will be processed without advancing the last line
                            buffer's index.

             <CONTROL +
             DELETE>        Will advance the last line buffer's index thereby
                            'deleting' characters from the last line buffer
                            (NOT the current line!).

             <START>        Will repeat the remaining characters in the last
                            line buffer.  If you are in the first position of
                            the input line, pressing <START> will repeat the
                            entire last line.

             <SELECT>       Works like the <START> key, except that the next
                            word only is pulled from the last line buffer.

             <SHIFT +
             DELETE>        The <SHIFT + DELETE> key will erase the entire
                            current input line, placing the cursor back in the
                            first position of the line.

             CLS            The command 'CLS' takes the place of the <SHIFT +
                            CLR> (clear screen) function which is lost with
                            'IBM ON' command mode

EXAMPLE OF IBM MODE

     Let's say that the last command line executed looked like this:

     COPY D1:DOS>PROKEY.COM D3:PROKEY.*

     Now, let's assume that you also need to copy the PROKEY.DOC file, too.
     Instead of keying in the entire line again, just do this:

          o hit the right arrow key 21 times
          o key in DOC
          o press the <START> key





                                      106







__________________________
DISKRX Command
Purpose - To edit sectors, trace files or sector maps in any density, rebuild
directories, files etc.

DiskRx is the ICD SpartaDOS sector editor.  Most of its functions are for
SpartaDOS disks, however, it can also be used as a basic read/write editor for
non-SpartaDOS disks.

DiskRx operates in two modes: Disk mode and File mode.  File mode may be used
on SpartaDOS disks only.  In Disk mode, the sectors of any disk are accessible
sequentially or by random access (sector number input).  In File mode, only
those data sectors belonging to the specified file may be viewed.

Syntax
DISKRX   or
DISKRX Dn:   or
DISKRX [Dn:][path>]filename.ext

     With the first option, DiskRx will prompt you to select a drive.
     With the second option, the drive number is pulled from the command line.
     Both of these options start DiskRx in the Disk mode.
     The third option begins DiskRx in File mode as pulled from the command
     line, if found.  Otherwise, it begins in Disk mode with the drive that was
     specified in the filename.  If 'Dn:' was not specified it is assumed to be
     the default drive (the drive number in the DOS prompt).  It is not
     necessary to specify a path name, DiskRx will find the first occurrence of
     a file unless a path is given.

Remarks
Once DiskRx is finished loading, the Main Screen is displayed.  At the bottom
of the screen is a line showing how to get to the Menu or exit the program.
Above that is the prompt line where various messages are displayed.  The
information area seen above the prompt line shows the current mode, drive
number or file name, sector number, sector type, bytes per sector, whether or
not the disk is a SpartaDOS disk and whether or not the current sector is
allocated in the SpartaDOS bitmap.  If in File mode, the first sector map,
first data sector and index into the file of the current sector are also
shown.

The sector type is represented by a four-letter abbreviation.  Seven types are
recognized:

  o BOOT  - sectors 1 through 3
  o BMAP  - bitmap sector
  o DIRM  - sector map of main directory
  o MDIR  - main directory
  o SUBM  - sector map of subdirectory
  o SDIR  - subdirectory
  o DATA  - all other sectors

Only BOOT and DATA are shown on non-SpartaDOS disks, or disks on which the
directory tree cannot be mapped.





                                      107







Bytes per sector (b/s) is 128 or 256.  SpartaDOS disks show a 'Y' in the
'Sparta' field.  The bitmap allocation of a sector on a SpartaDOS disk is shown
in 'alloc' by a 'Y' or 'N'.

Above the information area is the data area.  Two fields are displayed, the
bytes in the current sector are shown on the left in their Hex form and on the
right as ATASCII characters.  At the far left side of the Hex field the byte
index is shown.  This ranges from '00:' to 'F8:' for 256 byte sectors, or from
'00:' to '78:' for 128 byte sectors.  Eight bytes are shown in each row across
the display.  128 byte sectors are displayed entirely on one screen and 256
byte sectors occupy two separate screens.  Press '>' to view the second half of
a 256 byte sector, '<' returns to the first half.

Two Menu screens are available which show the available commands.  Once
familiar with the program, you should not need these.

You will find DiskRx easy to use.  In most cases, prompts will guide you to the
next step.  The following commands are valid from the prompt cursor:

(A)Arithmetic Conversion - Converts decimal, hex and binary numbers.  Default
          is decimal, to indicate binary - enter 'B', to indicate hex - enter
          'H' or '$'.  Press <RETURN> or <SPACEBAR> after entering the first
          number, then enter 'D'(decimal), 'B'(binary) or 'H or $'(hex) to
          indicate the desired conversion.  Trivial conversions, ie. binary to
          binary, are ignored.

(B)Blank sector - Blank the sector in the buffer which may then be edited and
          written if so desired.

(C)Change disk - Change disk, drive or mode.  When editing a SpartaDOS disk,
          'C' forces a remapping of the directory tree, when rebuilding a
          damaged directory, use this command to see how well you are doing.
          If in File mode, 'C' forces a change to Disk mode.  You may enter '1'
          through '8' to select a drive, or indicate the default drive by a
          <SPACEBAR> or <RETURN>.  The default is the drive shown in the DOS
          prompt.

(D)Directory - Valid only on SpartaDOS disks, it will display all directory
          entries on a disk whether or not they are presently valid or in use.
          Optionally, a subdirectory path may be selected.  Note that in
          DiskRx, all path names begin at the Main directory.  The directory
          display shows:

           o the full name of the file and its size
           o the present status of the entry
           o the first sector map of the file
           o the sector(s) where the entry is actually
             written

          The status codes are displayed on the screen bottom.  If a path was
          specified, it is shown near the top of the page.  Some of the status
          options shown are not valid under SpartaDOS 3.2 or earlier, but will
          be in effect with the SpartaDOS X cartridge, these are Archive,
          Hidden and Open.




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(EA)Edit ATASCII and
(EH)Edit Hex - The cursor is positioned in the ATASCII or Hex fields of the
          current sector.  The arrow keys are used to move the cursor to the
          desired position, editing is terminated by the <ESC> key.  If editing
          the Hex field, only '0' through 'F' may be entered, in ATASCII edit,
          all characters may be entered except the cursor movement and <ESC>
          characters.  To enter these characters, move to the Hex field and
          enter the Hex equivalents.  Note that the sector display is instantly
          updated, and all characters changed are highlighted in the Hex field.
          To terminate Edit, press <ESC>.  Note that changes are not permanent
          until the sector is written with a 'W' command.

(F)File mode - Either specify a file name (optionally with a subdirectory path)
          or leave file mode by pressing <ESC> or <RETURN>.  You can also use
          the 'F' key to change drive numbers by entering only 'Dn:'

          A path is assumed to begin at the main directory.  Paths are not
          shown on the information field as there is not sufficient room.  Note
          that the program will find a file without a path name, you need to
          specify the path only in the case of multiple copies of the same file
          on the current disk.  You can list all occurrences of a file with the
          directory command.  Due to space limitations in the prompt line, only
          38 characters may be used to show a path/filename.  Use '*'
          abbreviations to access longer path names.

          If a 'Dn:' is not specified in the file name, the currently selected
          drive is used.  You may also view the sectors of any directory by
          typing the directory name.  The Main directory is referenced by the
          name 'MAIN'.  A file may only be rewritten on sectors already
          allocated.

(H)Hex - This command toggles the numbers in the information and prompt fields
          between Hex and decimal display.

(M)Menu - In Menu, change page with 'P' and exit with <ESC>.  All commands may
          be run from the menu and all but 'H', 'P' and <CONTROL + P> will get
          you out of the Menu to the appropriate screen and command.

(O)Override parameters - Useful in disk recovery where the first sector has
          been damaged and the basic status of the disks is not readable or is
          incorrect.  Use some caution as you may get into trouble by
          injudicious use of override.  You can change:

           o SpartaDOS status
           o maximum disk sectors
           o bytes per sector
           o disk write locked parameters

          Optionally, these parameters may be rewritten to sector 1, assuming
          that it is not a bad sector.

(QP) Quit Program - Quit DiskRx and re-enter SpartaDOS.

(R)Read sector - Read a sector from diskette.  You have three options:




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           o R   Read next sector in sequence
           o Rn  Read sector number 'n'
           o RL  Read Last sector

          In Disk mode, the 'raw' sector number is specified.  In File mode,
          the sector number relative to the beginning of the file is
          specified.

(SH)Search Hex and
(SA)Search ATASCII - Search from the current sector through last sector of
          either the disk or file (depending on current mode) for a sequence of
          bytes.  Wildcards or unknown characters may be specified by a '?' in
          the character sequence entered.  The search string may be up to 18
          bytes in length.  If a match is found, the sector is shown and the
          index into the sector where the string begins is printed in the
          prompt field.  You are asked if you want to continue the search.  The
          <ESC> key will terminate the search at any time.

(T)Toggle allocation - Allocates or deallocates current sector in the SpartaDOS
          bitmap.

(W)Write sector - Write displayed sector to disk.  You have two options:

           o W   Write data to the current sector
           o Wn  Write data to sector number 'n'
          In Disk mode, the 'raw' sector number is specified.  In File mode,
          the sector number relative to the beginning of the file is
          specified.

(>)Read next and
(<)Read previous - Read next or previous sector of file or disk.  If 256 byte
          sectors, read either the alternate half of the sector or the first
          half of the next (or last half of the previous) sector.  If 128 byte
          sectors or in sectors 1 through 3, read the next (or previous)
          sector.

          When examining a sparse file (one in which not all sectors have been
          actually allocated), any such sectors will show a blank sector in the
          data field, and 'Sector not allocated' will be displayed.  No file
          index, bitmap allocation or sector number will be shown in this
          case.

(+)Scan forward and
(-)Scan backward - Quick Scan forward (or backward), until end (or beginning)
          of disk or file, or until a key is pressed.  In File mode, only
          allocated sectors are displayed.

(1)Recover - Write tagged sectors to a file on another disk.  Useful in file
          recovery.  After locating the desired data, tag the sector with
          <SPACEBAR> to write it to the new file specified.  A sector may not
          be written more than once.  Terminate the function and close the file
          with a '1' or by leaving the program.  Note that the new file is
          written only to a different drive, because the main use of this
          function is in recovering text or data from a disk with a severely




                                      110







          damaged directory.

(2)Recover - Point to a sector map and write a file to another disk from the
          map.  Again, this is useful when a directory has been destroyed.

(3)Recover - Create a new directory entry from a sector map.  The name and
          optional path are entered.  The new entry is always written at the
          end of the directory chosen, remember that a SpartaDOS directory may
          have a maximum of 127 entries (this limitation does not apply to
          SpartaDOS X).  The new entry is given a status of 'in use' and you
          must modify this if wanting to protect it, create a subdirectory,
          etc.  The current system time and date is used.  The end of the
          directory is denoted by a status byte of zero.  This function writes
          at that point, so if you want a directory entry at a certain place,
          use the edit function to put a zero in the correct position.  See the
          SpartaDOS manual Chapter 19 for more detail.

(4)Recover - Write the current contents of the main buffer to any sector of any
          disk.  This is most useful if you have a bad sector one on a disk.
          You can get a good copy from another SpartaDOS disk and use this
          command to write it to the faulty disk.  Then you can edit the disk
          parameters in your new sector one as required for the target disk.
          Another possible use is capturing system sectors in a file for study
          or modification.  See the SpartaDOS manual Chapter 19 for more
          detail.

<CONTROL + P> - Toggles the printer on and off.  Only sector reads and
          directories are printed.  If a printer is not on line, this menu
          option won't be displayed.

<ESC> - <ESC> is the general purpose get out and terminate command.  You leave
          the Menu, Override and Directory screens, and the Edit function with
          this key.  It will also get you out of any place you don't want to be
          (within reason).

Other DiskRx Notes
Two types of error messages are used in DiskRx.  The message 'Disk error# (num)
at sector (num)' refers to errors on the disk being edited.  Usually this will
be either and error 138, for a drive not on line or door open, or an error 144
for a bad sector.  The message 'System Error# (num)' refers to an error
detected from SpartaDOS and would almost always occur either when using File
Recovery functions 1 and 2 to write to another disk, or when specifying a file
name with a directory path.

When editing a non-SpartaDOS disk, only Disk mode is valid.  The 'D', 'F', 'T',
'2' and '3' commands may not be used.

Upon entering the program, mapping of the disk directory tree is attempted.  If
the program appears to be locked or running wild, press <ESC> to exit.  The
directory will not be mapped and only BOOT and DATA sectors will be displayed.
The usual reason for this condition is a messed up bitmap or directory sector
map.

Similarly, upon entering File mode, mapping of the file is attempted.  Again,




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<ESC> terminates this if it appears unsuccessful.  The main reason is generally
a scrambled file sector map.

If the boot sectors are damaged, the program may not be able to determine the
disk status.  The message 'Unable to read boot sector' will be shown.  You can
then press <ESC> at the next drive prompt and use Override (O) to gain access
to the disk.

The edit functions are used to repair damage.  The file recovery functions can
be used to retrieve 'lost' data or rebuild a directory from scratch by locating
all the sector maps in a manual search.  You can also use the program to
'patch' any file, customize prompts etc.

Study the SpartaDOS manual carefully for a complete explanation of the
structure of a SpartaDOS disk, and use DiskRx to explore a good disk NOW, don't
wait until you have a damaged system to learn DiskRx.  This knowledge will
enable you to rebuild or recover your trashed disks!


__________________________
CLEANUP Command
Purpose - This program detects file structure defects on a SpartaDOS disk and
alerts the user to their existence.  In some cases, the user is able to correct
the defects with CLEANUP.  In other cases DiskRx, the ICD Sector Editor, will
be required.

Syntax
CLEANUP Dn: [/P]

     P - echo CLEANUP's output to printer

Remarks
'Dn:' represents the drive you want to inspect and/or correct.  Optionally you
may specify a '/P' from the command line to get the program's output echoed to
the printer.

At any time when you are asked by CLEANUP if it is OK to do something, respond
with 'Y' key for 'yes' and any other key for 'no'.

CLEANUP first attempts to map the entire directory structure on the disk.
During this process, it reports back on several types of findings:

 (1) files or directories with invalid file name characters.  This is a non-
     fatal, but often annoying, defect, as you will not be able to access these
     files.

 (2) files with a first sector map of $0000.  This is a non-fatal defect.

 (3) files with a non-zero, non-valid sector map chain.  This is a fatal type
     of defect in that if such a file is erased from DOS, a number of other
     files will be corrupted.  The data will still be present, but some of the
     sectors will have been deallocated.  If a disk write is subsequently
     performed, the good data will have been overwritten.





                                      112







 (4) files which, under SpartaDOS X, were opened for write or update and never
     properly closed.  This is a fatal type of defect because the data in these
     files is not valid.

 (5) directories with an incorrect length.  This is a non-fatal error, but
     should be corrected, as SpartaDOS does use this information to test for
     the end of the directory.

If any flaws of types 2 through 4 are detected, you will be given the
opportunity to mark the file as deleted.  This means that the directory entry
is marked 'erased' although the sectors are not deallocated as when erasing in
DOS.

If a flaw of type 5 is detected, you will be given the opportunity to have
CLEANUP correct it.

At the end of the mapping process, the total number of valid files and
directories is reported.

Once the directory has been mapped, CLEANUP constructs a new bitmap of the
drive.  In a bitmap, each bit corresponds to one sector on the disk.  If a bit
is set (1) the sector is a free sector (not allocated).  If it is clear (0) the
sector is allocated to a file, directory, bitmap or boot sector.  It is also no
longer free.

During the process of building a bitmap, if any sector is claimed by more than
one file or directory a collision has occurred.  In this case, all the files
claiming the sector are shown and you will be given the opportunity to mark one
as deleted.  If one is so marked, the mapping process starts over.  If you
choose not to mark one deleted, the program regards this as a fatal type of
error, because erasing one of the files may erase valid data actually belonging
to the other file(s).

In some cases you may be able to decide which file or directory to keep, by its
name or time and date stamp.  Certainly, in many cases, it will be necessary to
merely make a note of the names and use DiskRx to inspect each file before
deciding which one to keep.

The mapping process and collision deletion continues until all collisions have
either been resolved or ignored.

CLEANUP then compares the new bitmap with the drive's present bitmap.  If any
differences are found, you are asked if it is OK to print out a report.  If
your answer is 'Y', a report of the differences is displayed in the following
format:

     Bmap  Byte   Bit(s)        Disk Sctr
     ------------------------------------
     $0004 $01    1,3,4           $0008
                                  $000A
                                  $000B


Explanation




                                      113







The difference was detected in bitmap sector 4, which is usually the first
sector of the bitmap.  The difference was found in the second byte of the
sector (the first byte is $00).  Bits 1, 3 and 4 differed from the original
bitmap (bit 1 is the high order bit).  The corresponding sectors on the disk
are 8, 10 and 11.

CLEANUP then compares the new number of free sectors with the disk's original
number.  If there is a difference, it is reported.

If any fatal errors found have been resolved, you are given the opportunity to
write both the bitmap and the number of free sectors permanently on the disk.

Finally, a series of cautionary messages may appear depending on the sort of
errors found and (in the case of fatal errors) left unresolved.

CLEANUP will be most useful on hard disks with a large number of files - which
sometimes become corrupted in one or more of the above ways.  Such corruption
is often due to such things as power failure or surges while using the disk, or
pressing <RESET> while in the midst of a disk write.

Another possible cause is an untested or faulty program running wild!
Programmers, note that it is usually recommended that you test new programs on
a Ramdisk or a floppy until you are satisfied with their performance.  Having
your latest masterpiece trash your hard drive is guaranteed to start the day
off wrong.

One last caution - there are certain 'buggy' public domain programs, 'pirated'
programs and programs infected with a computer 'virus' available which are
guaranteed to send your SpartaDOS disk to never-never land!  When using an
untested program for the first time, it is advisable to disconnect your hard
drive.  If you forget, it will probably be possible to use DiskRx and CLEANUP
to reconstruct most of the disk - at the expense of several hours of
painstaking work.




__________________________
R-Time 8 SUPPLEMENT

The R-Time 8 now adds another dimension to the SpartaDOS Construction Set
family which began with SpartaDOS version 1.1 and the US Doubler.  Although the
TD, XTD and TSET commands have been around for quite some time, they have been
modified several times as problems arose.  Their method of time and date
support simply did not allow the flexibility that is now needed.  As part of
our ongoing development of SpartaDOS, we have developed a new SpartaDOS version
which has built in TD and TSET functions.  Accompanying the R-Time 8 is this
new SpartaDOS version 3.2

The R-Time 8 package includes: 1) this supplement  2) the R-Time 8 cartridge
3) a double sided diskette with SpartaDOS 3.2 and updated command files on the
front side.  The back side is in Atari DOS 2 format and has the R-Time 8
generic 'Z:' handler (RTIME8.COM) and its source code (RTIME8.SRC).





                                      114







The SpartaDOS Construction Set package includes: 1) a diskette containing the
standard SpartaDOS version 1.1 on the front and public domain games with the
LOGOMENU program on the back side  2) a diskette containing both SpartaDOS
version 2.3 and 3.2 with their supporting command files  3) this supplement  4)
the SpartaDOS Construction Set Owner's Manual.  If you purchased the US
Doubler, you receive the two US Doubler chips along with the SpartaDOS
Construction Set package.

This manual is supplied with both the latest SpartaDOS Construction Set and the
R-Time 8 package.  The divisions of the manual and their contents are as
follows:

     Chapter 1 - Introduction to the R-Time 8   pg115
     Chapter 2 - Overview of SpartaDOS 3.2   pg119
     Chapter 3 - Commands Added to SpartaDOS 3.2   pg121
     Chapter 4 - Update on the Technical Structure   pg127
     Chapter 5 - The Time and Date 'Z:' Handler Functions   pg130
     Chapter 6 - Using the Supra Hard Disk Interface with SpartaDOS   pg133



__________________________
Chapter 1___Introduction to the R-Time 8

This chapter is a brief introduction to the R-Time 8 cartridge.  Explanations
are included on how to use the R-Time 8 files with six different versions of
DOS and which versions of DOS you may use with your computer.

Installation (Plugging it in)
Install the R-Time 8 cartridge as you would install any other cartridge for the
Atari 8 bit computer line.  The flap on top with the ICD logo faces toward the
front of the 800 and 800XL computers.  On the Atari 800 computers (which have
both left and right slots), you may use whichever slot is most convenient
(normally the right since most other cartridges use the left slot).  Notice
that the top of the R-Time 8 cartridge has an expansion port.  You may use it
to plug in your language cartridge (Pilot, ACTION, BASIC XE etc.) on top of the
R-Time 8.

Booting Your Computer
First you must choose which DOS to use.  Although any DOS should work, your
choice governs the flexibility and ease of use of the R-Time 8.  For example,
if you use Atari DOS 2.5, you lose the powerful TIME, DATE and TD commands
supported from SpartaDOS 3.2  Most importantly, NO VERSION OR DERIVATIVE OF
ATARI DOS 2 SUPPORTS TIME AND DATE STAMPING OF FILES.  This was the whole
premise for making the R-Time 8 - to time and date stamp SpartaDOS files.  A
standard 'Z:' handler is implemented for which ever DOS you choose.  With this
interface to the cartridge, you may use BASIC (or whatever language you wish to
use) to access the R-Time 8 for a wide variety of applications.


DOS Choices and Their Use with the R-Time 8

SpartaDOS 3.2 (for use with 800XL, 1200XL, 130XE and most Operating Systems
If you have one of these computers, this is the choice to make.  The Command




                                      115







Processor has the commands TIME, DATE and TD built in, which allow you to read
and set the time and date.  TD allows you to turn on and off a time and date
display line, however, the actual handler code (TDLINE) must be loaded before
the first use of the internal TD command.  To install the 'Z:' handler, you
must enter the command ZHAND.
NOTE: ZHAND is only necessary if you wish to address the R-Time 8 as the 'Z:'
device.  This is generally for easy access from BASIC or other language
programs.

SpartaDOS 2.3 (for use with 800XL or 130XE using the standard OS only)
This version of SpartaDOS has a MEMLO of under $0E00, which gives almost an
extra 4000 bytes of free user memory Atari DOS.  Use the external TD or XTD
commands to provide the interface between SpartaDOS and the R-Time 8.  The
external TD command also provides the time and date display line.  Neither of
these supplies the 'Z:' handler, but they take less memory.  An alternative to
TD or XTD is the RTIME8 command.  This supplies the 'Z:' handler as well as the
DOS to R-Time 8 interface.  The TSET command is used to set the time or date
and may be used while either RTIME8 or TD/XTD is installed.

SpartaDOS 1.1 (works with any 8-bit Atari computer with at least 32K RAM)
If you have an 800 or need a translator, use this version, if not - it is
better to use version 3.2 or 2.3  The same commands work for this version as
for SpartaDOS 2.3  This version of DOS has a much higher MEMLO than 2.3 or 3.2
and is not capable of reading Atari DOS 2 diskettes directly.  There are
several different 1.1 versions (ie. NOCP, NOWRITE, SPEED and STANDARD) which
work around its deficiencies.


Use one of the following DOS types if you don't have SpartaDOS
Atari DOS 2 or 2.5 (and its many followers ie. MYDOS, TOPDOS, SMARTDOS etc.)
You must rename the RTIME8.COM file to AUTORUN.SYS and boot your DOS 2
diskette.  The back side of the diskette supplied with the R-Time 8 cartridge
is an Atari DOS 2 format with the RTIME8.COM handler and the RTIME8.SRC source
file.  The handler will load and relocate itself at MEMLO.

NOTE: the time and date display line will automatically be turned off when you
enter DOS (by the DOS command from BASIC).


DOS XL (by OSS)
To install the R-Time 8 handler, enter the command RTIME8 from the Command
Processor.  Since this is a CP (Command Processor) type of DOS, the time and
date display line will remain on (as in SpartaDOS) when you enter DOS (by the
DOS command from BASIC).


Atari DOS 3
If you have this DOS, we strongly recommend that you do not use it anymore.  Go
out and purchase the SpartaDOS Construction Set.  Atari DOS 3, a product of the
old Atari, will become a nightmare since:  1) it is not supported by Atari or
any software company  2) it is very difficult to convert DOS 3 files to any
other Disk Operating System (DOS).






                                      116







Some Examples Using the 'Z:' Handler with BASIC
These examples all assume that you have BASIC installed in your computer
(either internal or a cartridge) and wish to access the R-Time 8 in a program.
For more details on the 'Z:' handler functions, see Chapter 5 of this
supplement.  To install the 'Z:' handler, choose a DOS and perform one of the
following operations depending on your selection:

SpartaDOS 3.2
     Boot the DOS and enter the commands:
          TDLINE
          ZHAND
          CAR

SpartaDOS2.3, 1.1, DOS XL
     Boot the DOS and enter the commands:
          RTIME8
          CAR

Atari DOS 2 (and family)
          Move RTIM8.COM to your DOS diskette and rename it to
          AUTORUN.SYS
          Now boot that diskette, the handler will install automatically


Turning the Clock On and Off
To turn the clock display on, enter the following command (from BASIC).

     XIO 38,#1,0,0"Z:"

An extra display line will appear on top of the screen containing the correct
time and date.  Most programs from BASIC should work with the display line
turned on, however, there are many exceptions.  Practically all programs that
use custom display lists or vertical blank routines will not work correctly.
In most cases, the display line will simply be lost.

One inherent problem with Atari DOS 2 is the non-resident nature of the DUP.SYS
program.  The time and date display can't be on while using DUP (because DUP
loads on top of the interrupt handler).  Since it is inconvenient to always
turn the display off before typing 'DOS', it is automatically done for you.
There is absolutely no problem when using SpartaDOS or OSS DOS XL.  The time
and date will remain on since no DUP.SYS is needed.

To remove the time and date line from the display, enter the command:

     XIO 39,#1,0,0,"Z:"


Reading the Clock Using BASIC
Your BASIC programs (or any language) may read the time and date in either
formatted or unformatted form.  This is accomplished by performing an XIO call
followed by several GETs or an INPUT on an open IOCB.  For example, to read the
FORMATTED time, type and run the program:

     10 DIM TIME$(10)




                                      117







     20 OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:"
     30 XIO 32,#1,0,0,"Z:"
     40 INPUT #1,TIME$
     50 PRINT "Current Time is ";TIME$
     60 CLOSE #1


Setting the Clock
Your BASIC program may set the time or date by performing an XIO and a sequence
of three PUT statement.  The following is an example of setting the date:

     10 OPEN #1,8,0,"Z:"
     20 PRINT "Enter Date (MM,DD,YY)";
     30 INPUT MONTH,DAY,YEAR
     40 XIO 35,#1,0,0,"Z:"
     50 PUT #1,DAY : PUT #1,MONTH : PUT #1,YEAR
     60 CLOSE #1

When setting the time, the hour must be given using a 24 hour clock where 12:00
midnight is 0, 12:00 noon is 12, 4:00 PM is 16 etc.  The order of the PUTs is
important.  For date it is: day, month, year.  For time it is: hour, minute,
second.


R-Time 8 use from SpartaDOS
To use R-Time 8 with SpartaDOS version 3.2, study the commands in Chapter 3 of
this supplement.  To use it with version 1.1 and 2.3, review Chapter 12 and
Appendix D in the SpartaDOS Construction Set Owner's Manual.  For R-Time 8
support of Bulletin Board Construction Set 1.6 or earlier, use SpartaDOS
version 2.3 and the XTD handler.


R-Time 8 Access from Machine Language
Although we strongly recommend that programmers using a standard DOS should
access the R-Time 8 through the 'Z:' handler, we have included the source code
for RTIME8 (RTIME8.SRC) on the back side of the R-Time 8 distribution diskette
(Atari format).  This gives detailed information on the inner workings of the
clock chip to anyone familiar with machine language programming.  Also refer to
Chapter 4 of this supplement for information on the TIME and DATE vectors of
SpartaDOS 3.2


R-Time 8 Maintenance and Service
This accurate timing device has been built to supply you with years of trouble
free service.  The accuracy is determined by the frequency of the crystal at
location Y1 and the adjustor at YC1.  To open the case, carefully pry it apart
equally at both ends with a flat blade screwdriver.  To adjust for greater
accuracy turn the small slot at the center of YC1 slightly to the right or
left.  If adjustment is needed, calibrate the R-Time 8 once a week with an
accurate watch and adjust accordingly if it is gaining or losing seconds.  It
should be possible to get very close with this method and a little patience.
Battery life is calculated for 3 to 5 years.  The battery is a 200mah 3 volt
Lithium cell.  Replacement batteries are currently available for $5.00
including shipping.  Full service including repair, calibration and battery




                                      118







replacement is currently $20.  This does not include damage due to abuse.



__________________________
Chapter 2___Overview of SpartaDOS 3.2

This chapter briefly describes the changes between SpartaDOS 3.2 and SpartaDOS
2.3  Improvements have been made in the following areas:

 o Better time and date support (internal TD, TIME, DATE commands)
 o Internal R-Time 8 interface
 o Internal JIFFY clock interface (for non-R-Time 8 users)
 o Internal 32 character keyboard buffer (and KEY command)
 o Automatic mini-buffer system for fast byte PUT and GET functions
 o New vectors added for machine language support
 o Control returned to DOS if DOS was active during RESET
 o Supports both a STARTUP.BAT and an AUTORUN.SYS file
 o Compatible with BASIC XE, 1200XLs and many modified Operating Systems
 o BASIC ON/OFF command operation from within a batch file (not end only)
 o NOISY I/O flag recognized
 o Support for the Supra Hard Disk Interface
 o All command entry in upper or lower case
 o Full read capability for Atari DOS 2.5 type enhanced density format


Internal Real Time Support
Three new internal commands, time and date support vectors, an internal clock
and access to the R-Time 8 cartridge, have been added for convenience and easy
access.

Operating on the jiffy counter (at location $12 thru $14), the internal clock
determines the number of jiffies (1/60th second) between the current and the
last access.  Time is then added to the internal clock based on this
difference.  Unfortunately a RESET zeros the jiffy counter, thus the time
between the last access and RESET is lost!  The command TDLINE fixes this
problem by updating the internal clock each half second while displaying the
time and date on the top of the display.  Unfortunately this method must use
the vertical blank interrupt which runs the risk of interfering with other user
applications.  The TIME command from older SpartaDOS versions is similar to
TDLINE in its inherent problems.

If you have an R-Time 8 cartridge installed, SpartaDOS 3.2 will recognize it
and use the R-Time 8 in place of the internal jiffy clock.

The new internal TIME and DATE commands are used to display and set the time
and date.  The new internal TD command is used to turn the time and date
display line on and off (ie. TD ON or TD OFF) once TDLINE has been installed.

The old external time and date support commands (TD, TSET, XTD, TIME and SET)
have not been changed.  They may still be used with SpartaDOS 2.3 and 1.1  The
reason for this will become apparent later.






                                      119







Keyboard Buffer
A 32 byte keyboard buffer is now internal.  The repeat rate has been doubled
for faster operation.  The keyboard buffer allows you to type ahead of the
computer (up to 32 characters) even while disk I/O is occurring.  You may
disable this keyboard buffer by the KEY OFF command.  Use KEY ON to turn the
buffer back on.


Mini-buffering
Due to the nature of the CIO and the large database needed for SpartaDOS to
operate, single GET and PUT operations tended to be slow.  SpartaDOS 3.2 now
contains mini-buffering that allows these operations to be performed faster.
This also means faster INPUT and PRINT operations on disk files.  Mini-
buffering is not used with Atari DOS 2 formatted diskettes.


RESET
Now when you press RESET while in SpartaDOS with a cartridge present, control
will remain with SpartaDOS.  This also solves the conflict involving the warm
start of BASIC that may have occurred under unusual situations.  Optionally,
AUTOBAT.COM can be used which causes a particular batch file to execute after
pressing RESET.


AUTORUN.SYS and STARTUP.BAT
When SpartaDOS is booted, it will try to load an AUTORUN.SYS file.  If
successful, this file will run and then pass control to the cartridge.
Otherwise, SpartaDOS will try starting a STARTUP.BAT file.  If successful,
control will pass to the Command Processor of SpartaDOS, otherwise, control
will pass to the cartridge.


BASIC XE
The original reason for writing version 3.2 was to be compatible with BASIC XE.
This has been done, but resulted in some major changes.  First MEMLO had to be
drastically increased (to just below Atari DOS 2).  As long as MEMLO had to be
increased, it may as well be pushed up near Atari DOS 2 with many extras
added.


Supra Hard Disk Interface
Support for the Supra Hard Disk Interface has been added, including the new
BYPASS command which allows the use of floppy drives one and two, with the hard
disks as three and four.  This differs from the default set up - a 'fake'
floppy as one, a real floppy as 2 and the hard disks as three and four.


DOS 2.5 Extended Read Capability
SpartaDOS version 3.2 can directly read all sectors on an Atari DOS 2.5
formatted diskette in enhanced density.  This means you can boot SpartaDOS 3.2,
insert a full Atari DOS 2.5 enhanced density diskette and RUN or COPY files
from the directory which extend past sector 720.  You still cannot write to
this area of the diskette, however, read capability should be sufficient for
most users.




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__________________________
Chapter 3___Commands Added to SpartaDOS 3.2

The following is a summary of the new commands added to SpartaDOS 3.2


__________________________
TIME Command
Purpose - This command displays the current time and allows you to set the
time

Syntax
TIME

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 3.2
(this is totally different from the old external TIME command)

Remarks
This command produces the following output:

     Current time is 12:34:56pm
     Enter new time:

You may enter the new time or press <RETURN> if you don't want to set a new
time.  Enter the time in the format: 'hh:mm:ssx' where 'hh' is the hours, 'mm'
is the minutes, 'ss' is the seconds and 'x' is an 'a' or a 'p' to distinguish
between AM and PM.

NOTE: time is entered using a 12 hour clock rather than a 24 hour clock as in
the older commands.


__________________________
DATE Command
Purpose - This command displays the current date and allows you to set the
date.

Syntax
DATE

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 3.2

Remarks
This command produces the following output:

     Current date is 10/07/85
     Enter new date:

You may enter the new date or press <RETURN> if you don't want to set the new
date.  Enter the date in the format: 'mm/dd/yy' where 'mm' is the month, 'dd'
is the date and 'yy' is the year.





                                      121







__________________________
TD Command
Purpose - This command allows you to turn the time and date display line on and
off

Syntax
TD ON or TD OFF

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 3.2
(this is totally different from the old external TD command)

Remarks
The time and date display line is not supported internally by SpartaDOS.  If
you want the time and date display, you must first enter the TDLINE command to
install the handler.  This is explained further in the description of the time
and date vectors.


__________________________
TDLINE Command
Purpose - This command installs the time and date display line handler.  The
internal TD command controls this handler.

Syntax
TDLINE

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 3.2
(this command may not be used with earlier versions)

Remarks
This command installs a handler into the system that gets accessed by the
SpartaDOS time and date vectors.  The functions TDON and FMTTD are provided by
this handler.  The TDON function causes this handler to patch itself into the
vertical blank interrupt.  During the interrupt, it calls the FMTTD function
through SpartaDOS (returns the formatted time and date line), converts it to
display format and then displays it on the expanded top line.


__________________________
RTIME8 Command
Purpose - This command installs the routines needed to access the R-Time 8
cartridge for SpartaDOS versions 2.3 and 1.1  It is also used with Atari DOS as
an AUTORUN.SYS file.  RTIME8 contains the ZHAND and TDLINE functions.

Syntax
RTIME8

Type and Restrictions
External under CP versions 2.3, 1.1 and as AUTORUN.SYS with Atari DOS

Remarks
The RTIME8 installs the 'Z:' handler into the system.  Under SpartaDOS 2.3 and




                                      122







1.1, it updates TIMER and DATER (in COMTAB) for file time and date stamping.
It is NOT to be used in conjunction with TD or XTD.  It is provided for the
'Z:' handler compatibility.

NOTE: RTIME8 will also work with version 3.2 but it is preferable to use ZHAND
and TDLINE instead.  RTIME8 uses 178 more bytes than ZHAND and TDLINE combined.
Also, ZHAND and TDLINE work with both the internal clock and the R-Time 8
cartridge under version 3.2 (the vectors are there).  RTIME8 only supports the
R-Time 8 cartridge but works with all versions of SpartaDOS.


__________________________
ZHAND Command
Purpose - This command installs a 'Z:' handler that allows easy access to time
and date functions from BASIC

Syntax
ZHAND

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 3.2
(this may not be used with earlier versions)

Remarks
This command installs a device handler that provides an interface from a high
level language to time and date functions.  This handler converts requests from
the CIO into calls to the SpartaDOS time and date vectors and visa versa.  This
may be used with either the R-Time 8 cartridge or the internal time and date in
SpartaDOS.  Further documentation on the 'Z:' handler is provided later in this
document (pg130).


__________________________
KEY Command
Purpose - This command enables or disables the internal 32 key keyboard
buffer.

Syntax
KEY ON or KEY OFF

Type and Restrictions
Internal under CP version 3.2

Remarks
You will normally want the keyboard buffer on.  It turns out to be quite handy.
Use it for a while.  In rare cases, the keyboard buffer may interfere with a
software program (DDT - Dunion's Debugging Tool of the MAC/65 cart for one).
If this happens, simply disable the buffer by the KEY OFF command.


__________________________
RAMDISK Commands
Purpose - These commands install a Ramdisk device in place of a physical disk
drive.  Since these commands depend on specific hardware, the correct Ramdisk




                                      123







command must be used or an error will result.

Syntax
RD Dn: [/NE]
RD260 Dn: [/N]

     N - no format
     E - extended XE memory banks reserved

Type and Restrictions
External under all CP versions - command must match hardware

Remarks
These new Ramdisks support hardware modifications which can be made to the
800XL, 1200XL and 130XE to provide large Ramdisks.  Both commands format the
Ramdisk automatically in the 128 byte sectors unless the '/N' parameter is
used.

RD.COM supports the standard 130XE, the 130XE with 64K RAM upgrade (from Ron
Boling) and the new 256K RAMBO XL upgrade for the 800XL and 1200XL computers.
The RAMBO XL upgrade is available from ICD either installed or in kit form.
RD.COM, used with the RAMBO XL, gives a 192K Ramdisk with holds a full double
density disk!  RAMBO XL also makes your 800XL or 1200 XL fully compatible with
BASIC XE and other 130XE programs that take advantage of its extra memory.

The '/E' parameter (supported with RD.COM only) reserves the first 64K bank
area for programs which use the extended memory of the 130XE (such as BASIC
XE).  For example, 'RD D2: /E' will install a 128K Ramdisk when using an 800XL
modified with RAMBO XL.

RD260.COM SUPPORTS THE 800XL RAM upgrade to 256K as published in the September
1985 BYTE magazine by Claus Buchholz.  It is used like RD.COM and gives a 192K
Ramdisk!  This upgrade banks the lower 32K of memory unlike RAMBO XL which
banks memory from $4000 to $7FFF like the 130XE.

The '/N' parameter indicates that the Ramdisk is not to be formatted.  This
allows you to reboot the system and be able to retrieve that data that was in
the Ramdisk.

CAUTION: you may not power down the computer to reboot, it must be done with a
RESET that causes a reboot (cold start).  This is accomplished by setting
memory location $244 to a non-zero value and then pressing RESET.  This is very
useful for running a BBS from the Ramdisk.  If the DOS crashes, you may be able
to recover everything from the Ramdisk.  RUN E477 will also cause a cold start
with valid Ramdisk data left intact.


__________________________
SCOPY Command
Purpose - This command is used to perform a straight sector copy, to compact an
entire diskette into a file on another diskette or to expand a file into an
entire diskette.

Syntax




                                      124







SCOPY Dn:[[path>]sourcefname] [/UR] Dn:[[path>]destinationfname] [/UR]

     U - US Doubler sector skew copied
     R - Ramdisk identifier

Type and Restrictions
External under all CP versions

Remarks
SCOPY is a sector copier that has three modes of operation.  It can do a disk
to disk copy (like DUPDSK except that it formats the destination and it copies
all sectors - this means it will copy Atari DOS 2 diskettes also).  The other
two modes of operation allow either the compaction of an entire diskette to a
file on a destination diskette, or the creation of a destination diskette from
a previously compacted file.  This is an easy method for making multiple copies
of the same diskette (non-copy protected) using a Ramdisk.  In fact, this is
how ICD creates its distribution diskettes.

The mode of operation is strictly determined by the syntax of the command.  The
first disk or file is always the source and the second disk or file is always
the destination of the operation (as is true with the COPY command).  The three
modes of operation are basically:

     disk to disk   - simple sector copy
     disk to file   - compact diskette to file
     file to disk   - expand file to diskette

If a file name follows the 'Dn:' then that item is considered a compacted
'file', - and with no filename, it is considered a 'disk'.  A 'file to file'
operation is ILLEGAL with SCOPY.

The destination diskette is automatically formatted in the same density as the
source disk was.  The compacted file stores density information from the
original disk it was created from.  It does not matter what density the file
resides on.  Skew may be changed between UltraSpeed (US Doubler) skew and
standard Atari skew with the '/U' parameter described later.

CAUTION: for disk to file and file to disk copies, no prompt is given, the
operation is performed without intervention.  ALWAYS MAKE SURE YOUR DESTINATION
DISK CAN BE FORMATTED.  You will lose all previous information stored on it.
For disk to disk copies, you are prompted for source and destination diskettes
as required.

A 'disk' parameter may be followed by either a '/R' or '/U' parameter.  The
'/U' indicates that the diskette is US Doubler sector skew (for source) or is
to be formatted in US Doubler sector skew (for destination).  The '/R'
parameter indicates that the diskette is really a Ramdisk.  ONLY THE RD.COM
RAMDISK WILL ACT AS A 'DISK' WITH SCOPY.  RD.COM creates a Ramdisk which is a
complete model of a true disk drive.  It allows formatting, configuring, read
configuration and status commands.  The other Ramdisk handlers do not.  Always
use a 'space' as the delimiter between the device or filename and the slash '/'
before the parameter.

When using SCOPY, the copy process is performed as efficiently as possible.




                                      125







This means that if a drive contains a US Doubler and the diskette is not in
UltraSpeed skew, SCOPY will adjust and optimize for fastest copy time.  SCOPY
will work with single, double and 1050 enhanced density diskettes.  It is not
intended for the specialty (eight inch or double sided) drives.

Example - disk to disk copy using a single US Doubler 1050 drive

  SCOPY D1: /U D1: /U

This will cause an UltraSpeed sector skew diskette to be duplicated.  Leave out
the '/U' when copying standard Atari DOS 2 diskettes.  For multiple disk
duplication using a Ramdisk and a single drive, a typical pair of batch files
would be:

     RD D3:
     COPY SCOPY.COM D3:
     COPY BAT2.BAT D3:
     D3:
     ;Insert diskette to be copied in drive 1
     PAUSE
     SCOPY D1: /U D3:MYDISK
     -BAT2


     ;Insert destination diskette in drive 1
     PAUSE
     SCOPY D3:MYDISK D1: /U
     -BAT2

The second group of commands would be in the batch file 'BAT2.BAT', the first
group would be 'BAT1.BAT'.  This sequence will use 'D1:' as source and
destination while using 'D3:' as a temporary drive.

Note that SCOPY will NOT prompt in this sequence, thus the PAUSE command is
used for the switching of diskettes in drive 1.  You are prompted when
performing drive to same drive duplication as in the first example.

For more information about the batch files and how they work, see Chapter 14 in
the SpartaDOS Construction Set Owner's Manual.


__________________________
BYPASS Command
Purpose - This is a special command for the Supra Hard Disk Interface to allow
the use of a floppy drive 1.

Syntax
BYPASS

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 3.2

Remarks
This command is similar to the Ramdisk commands in that it will knock out the




                                      126







partitioned hard disk drive 1 and replace it with floppy drive 1 (assuming
there is a physical floppy drive configured as 1).  BYPASS patches itself into
the SIO vector (of SpartaDOS) and checks for a drive 1 access.  If so, then it
passes control directly to the SpartaDOS serial I/O routines, thus the front
end parallel I/O is skipped.  BYPASS is needed if you wish to use a floppy
drive as drive one rather than the hard disk acting as drive one.

CAUTION: IF USED FROM A BATCH FILE, MAKE SURE THAT THE BATCH FILE IS RUNNING
FROM A DRIVE OTHER THAN DRIVE 1.


__________________________
AUTOBAT Command
Purpose - AUTOBAT causes the specified batch file to be run whenever RESET is
pressed.

Syntax
AUTOBAT [Dn:][path>]fname[.ext]

Type and Restrictions
External under CP version 3.2

Remarks
This command patches itself into the SpartaDOS INIT vector (refer to the
technical structure update) to cause control to be passed to the specified
batch file after RESET is pressed.  Refer to Chapter 14, 'Input/Output
Redirection' in the SpartaDOS Construction Set Owner's Manual for information
about batch files.



__________________________
Chapter 4___Update on Technical Structure

Another version of SpartaDOS...why not?  Actually, the major reason we decided
to design another version of SpartaDOS was to achieve compatibility with BASIC
XE which was released right after SpartaDOS version 2.3 came out.  The actual
problem was that BASIC XE was determined to use the memory at $C000 thru $CBFF
and $D800 thru $DFFF which was already occupied by SpartaDOS 2.3  Since
everybody seems to like BASIC XE (including us), it was decided that we would
give up that area and move the code down to low memory.  End of story? - no, of
course not.  As long as MEMLO had to be pushed up, we might as well start
adding features... and add we did...


SpartaDOS Time/Date and other Vectors
SpartaDOS 3.2 contains many vectors pertaining to the setting, reading,
displaying of the time and date, executing command lines, initializing the
system and many more.  These vectors are contained in the RAM under the
Operating System starting at address $FFC0.  They may be accessed by the
following instructions:

     LDA $D301      ;PIA
     PHA            ;save old value of port b on stack




                                      127







     AND #$FE       ;set bit 0 to off
     STA #D301      ;enable RAM under the OS
     JSR VGETTD     ;call routine at $FFC0
     PLA
     STA $D301      ;restore port b (enable OS)

These functions each contain a jump (JMP) instruction to the appropriate
function.  If a function is not initially supported (as in TDON), the vector
will contain a SEC and RTS instruction rather than a JMP.  The following
vectors are currently supported:

  VGETTD $FFC0        This function returns the current time and date at COMTAB
        locations TIMER and DATER.  On return, the carry flag is set if the
        function failed.  When a file is opened for write, SpartaDOS makes a
        call here to update TIMER and DATER so it can move this data into the
        directory entry.  Also the TIME and DATE internal commands make calls
        here to get the current time.  TDLINE and ZHAND also use this vector.

  VSETTD $FFC3        This function sets the time and date.  On entry, the new
        time and date are at COMTAB locations TIMER and DATER.  On return, the
        carry flag is set if the function failed.  This vector is used by the
        commands TIME, DATE and the ZHAND set functions.

  VTDON $FFC6         This function turns the time and date display line on or
        off.  On entry the Y register contains zero to turn the line off, or
        one to turn the line on.  On return, the carry flag is set if the
        function failed.  This function is not supported internally by
        SpartaDOS.  The TDLINE handler patches into this vector for use by the
        TD command along with the ZHAND XIO functions 38 and 39.

  VFMTTD $FFC9        This function returns the formatted time and date line
        into a user supplied buffer.  On entry the X and Y registers contain
        the high and low byte of the buffer address respectively.  On exit, the
        carry flag is set if the function failed.  This function is not
        supported internally by SpartaDOS.  The TDLINE handler patches into
        this vector for use by TDLINE and ZHAND routines.

  VINIZ $FFCC         This vector is called after SpartaDOS has finished
        initializing itself after a RESET occurs.  The command AUTOBAT patches
        into this vector to start a batch file right after RESET.  By
        initialization, we mean as a result of making a call through DOSINI -
         ie. JMP DOSINI.  The OS monitor routine calls this vector before it
        enters a cartridge or DOS.

  VINTZ2 $FFCF        This vector is called after SpartaDOS has finished
        initializing itself after a NON-RESET occurs.  Several SpartaDOS
        commands (such as SCOPY and UNERASE) will initialize SpartaDOS before
        and after they perform their function.  They do this by jumping through
        the DOSINI vector as does the OS monitor routine after a RESET.

  VXCOMLI $FFD2       This vector calls the Command Processor to execute a
        command line given at LBUF.  BUFOFF should be zero on entry.  Any
        errors that may occur as a result of executing the command line shall
        be printed as usual.  No prompts are printed before or after command




                                      128







        execution.  This is the method that a future DUP.SYS for SpartaDOS
        could use to perform its functions.

  VCOMND $FFD5        This vector calls the main Command Processor program
        entry point.  You may patch into this vector if you wish to supply your
        own Command Processor.  The current one simply prints the prompt,
        inputs a line, calls VXCOMLI and jumps back to the beginning.  This is
        the method DUP.SYS uses to gain entry from a DOS command in BASIC.

  VPRINT $FFD8        This vector points to the SpartaDOS general print
        routine.  The calling method is:
        JSR VPRINT
        DB 'This is a message',$9B,-1

  VKEYON $FFDB        This function turns the keyboard buffer on or off.  On
        entry, the Y register contains zero to turn the buffer off, or a one to
        turn the buffer on.  This function is supported internally by
        SpartaDOS.


  Updates in the COMTAB Data Table
  Several updates to COMTAB locations have been made.  For general information
        about COMTAB, refer to the SpartaDOS Construction Set Owner's Manual.

    DWARM     [COMTAB-21]    This location contains a copy of the WARMFLG
        (location 8) that will be used when a cartridge is entered, it
        indicates if user memory is valid and a zero indicates that a memory
        destructive command was entered (such as COPY) or that a binary file
        was loaded.

    DDENT     [COMTAB-19]    This is the table of bytes per sector for each
        drive (1-8).  A zero indicates 256 bytes per sector and a 128 indicates
        128 bytes per sector.

    WARMST    [COMTAB-1]     NOT USED

    SBUFF     [COMTAB+28]    This is the start address of SpartaDOS sector
        buffers.

    SMEMLO    [COMTAB+30]    This is the top of SpartaDOS low memory.  Handlers
        added since boot take up the memory between SMEMLO and MEMLO.

    INCOMND   [COMTAB+32]    A one here indicates that we are in the Command
        Processor (entering commands, etc.).  A zero indicates that we are in
        BASIC or some cartridge program.  This is used by the initialization
        routine to determine whether to enter the Command Processor or not.


SpartaDOS Version Identification
When writing new commands, it is necessary to distinguish between versions of
SpartaDOS.  From now on, two identification bytes at $700 and $701 are
contained in all versions (from 2.5 on).  Location $700 will always contain a
$53 (S) and location $701 will contain the version number ($25, etc.).





                                      129







Other Notes About Version 3.2
Since the SpartaDOS initialization now gives control directly to the Command
Processor (CP) if INCOMND is true (-1), the CP may inadvertently be entered
when a user program performs a warm RESET (through $E474 vector).  To avoid
this, a -1 placed at memory location $702 will disable the initialization
routine from running the CP.


BASIC XE Notes
To be compatible with BASIC XE, SpartaDOS could not use memory from $C000 thru
$CBFF and $D800 thru $DFFF.  However, normally SpartaDOS uses these areas, the
first area for both AINIT and the verbal error messages and the second for
buffers.  Thus, when using BASIC XE, both the AINIT command and verbal error
messages are disabled, and eight buffers are allocated just below MEMLO
(increasing MEMLO by $400 bytes).  The eight buffers are a decrease from the
sixteen buffers normally maintained at $D800 thru $DFFF.


Supra Hard Disk and Parallel Bus Notes
To be compatible with the Supra Hard Disk Interface and any future parallel bus
devices, it was necessary to vacate $D800 thru $DFFF (as with BASIC XE).
Parallel bus use is determined and automatically compensated for by checking
PDVMSK ($247) to see if any parallel devices are on line.  If a device is
present, SpartaDOS uses eight buffers at low memory and does not use $D800 thru
$DFFF (therefore increasing MEMLO by $400).



__________________________
Chapter 5___The BASIC Time and Date 'Z:' Handler Functions

The following is a list of Time and Date 'Z:' handler functions and how to
implement them from BASIC through XIO statements.  The DOS command, if
applicable, follows the function name in parenthesis.


General Notes
It is assumed that a 'Z:' handler has been installed into your system.  This is
accomplished by the command 'ZHAND' under SpartaDOS 3.2 (also install the
display with 'TDLINE' if using a display function under 3.2).  If using an
earlier version of SpartaDOS or Atari DOS 2 (or versions thereof), you must use
the 'RTIME8.COM' file.  Type 'RTIME8' if using a Command Processor driven DOS
(like SpartaDOS), or rename the file to 'AUTORUN.SYS' and boot the diskette if
using a DUP.SYS type of DOS (like Atari DOS 2.5).

Throughout these examples, 'IOCB' represents an Input/Output Control Block
number from 1 through 7.


__________________________
Turn Time and Date Display ON (TD ON)

Syntax
XIO 38,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"




                                      130







Notes
An extra line will appear at the top of the display containing the current time
and date.  The SpartaDOS version number will also be displayed.  If you are
using the 'RTIME8' handler for Atari DOS 2, the message 'R-Time 8' will appear
instead of the SpartaDOS version message.  An error 139 (Device NAK) will occur
if the 'TDLINE' handler has not yet been installed under SpartaDOS.


__________________________
Turn Time and Date Display Off (TD OFF)

Syntax
XIO 39,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"

Notes
The extra line at the top of the display is removed.  This has no effect on
SpartaDOS's internal time keeping.


__________________________
Read Formatted Date

Syntax
XIO 34,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
INPUT #IOCB,DATE$

Notes
This sequence will read the date into 'DATE$'.  This string should be at least
13 characters long (as defined by the BASIC 'DIM' statement).  The string will
be returned in the format 'Mon 21-Oct-85'.  Attempts to read more characters
will return an end of file error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for read prior
to the execution of these statements (ie. OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:").  An error 139
(NAK) will be returned if the TDLINE handler has not yet been installed when
using SpartaDOS 3.2


__________________________
Read Formatted Time

Syntax
XIO 32,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
INPUT #IOCB,TIME$

Notes
This sequence will read the time into 'TIME$'.  This string should be at least
10 characters long (as defined by the BASIC 'DIM' statement).  The string will
be returned in the format '10:20:46am'.  Attempts to read more characters will
return an end of file error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for read prior to the
execution of these statements (ie. OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:").  An error 138 (NAK) will
be returned if the TDLINE handler has not yet been installed when using
SpartaDOS 3.2







                                      131







__________________________
Read Unformatted Date (DATE)

Syntax
XIO 35,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
GET #IOCB,DAY : GET #IOCB,MONTH : GET #IOCB,YEAR

Notes
This sequence will read the numerical date into the variables, 'DAY', 'MONTH'
and 'YEAR'.  The year is returned as the last two digits of the actual year
(ie. 1985 is returned as YEAR 85).  Attempts to read more characters will
return an end of file error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for read prior to the
execution of these statements (ie. OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:").  No error will occur with
this command under SpartaDOS 3.2 since this is an internal function of
SpartaDOS 3.2


__________________________
Read Unformatted Time (TIME)

Syntax
XIO 33,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
GET #IOCB,HOUR : GET #IOCB,MINUTE : GET #IOCB,SECOND

Notes
This sequence will read the numerical time into the variables, 'HOUR', 'MINUTE'
and 'SECOND'.  The hour is returned using the 24 hour clock where 0 is
midnight, 12 is noon and 15 is 3PM.  Attempts to read more characters will
return an end of file error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for read prior to the
execution of these statements (ie. OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:").  No error will occur with
this command under SpartaDOS 3.2 since this is an internal function of
SpartaDOS 3.2


__________________________
Set Date (DATE)

Syntax
XIO 37,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
PUT #IOCB,DAY : PUT #IOCB,MONTH : PUT #IOCB,YEAR

Notes
This sequence will set the date from the variables, 'DAY', 'MONTH' and 'YEAR'.
The year is given as the last two digits of the actual year (ie. 1985 is given
as YEAR 85).  Attempts to write more characters will return an end of file
error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for write prior to the execution of these
statements (ie. OPEN #1,8,0,"Z:").  An error 139 (NAK will occur if the handler
is unable to set the date.  The set function is an internal function of
SpartaDOS 3.2


__________________________
Set Time (TIME)





                                      132







Syntax
XIO 36,#IOCB,0,0,"Z:"
PUT #IOCB,HOUR : PUT #IOCB,MINUTE : PUT #IOCB,SECOND

Notes
This sequence will set the time from the variables, 'HOUR', 'MINUTE' and
'SECOND'.  The hour is given using the 24 hour clock where 0 is midnight, 12 is
noon and 15 is 3PM.  Attempts to write more characters will return an end of
file error 136.  The IOCB must be opened for write prior to the execution of
these statements (ie. OPEN #1,8,0,"Z:").  An error 139 (NAK will occur if the
handler is unable to set the time.  The set function is an internal function of
SpartaDOS 3.2


Some Examples Using the 'Z:' Handler
The following program will keep a constant time display:

     10 DIM TIME$(13) : POKE 752,1 : REM turn cursor off
     20 OPEN #1,4,0,"Z:"
     30 XIO 32,#1,0,0,"Z:"
     40 INPUT #1,TIME$
     50 POSITION 2,0
     60 PRINT TIME$
     70 GOTO 30

Do not be alarmed if the time and date display line seems to stop while running
this program.  This is because both the TDLINE and the ZHAND routines try to
use the SpartaDOS time and date vectors and priority is given to ZHAND rather
than the interrupt display handling.  If using the 'RTIME8' handler under Atari
DOS 2 or SpartaDOS 2.3 and earlier versions, there is no conflict.



__________________________
Chapter 6___Using the Supra Hard Disk Interface With SpartaDOS

Supra Corp. (formerly MPP) has released a parallel interface for hard disk
drives (Winchester type).  As previously promised, SpartaDOS is ready to be the
DOS of choice for hard disk use.  If you already have a Supra Hard Disk System
up and running under another DOS, then skip the section on formatting and
proceed to the section entitled 'Configuring for SpartaDOS'.  If you are
starting from scratch, then please read on.


Formatting the Hard Disk
The hard disk system stores important information about the type of hard drive
being used on the first track of the disk.  This information is written when
the disk is formatted by the FORMWIM program.  When the computer is powered up,
the interface tries to read this information.  If the information is not
present (your drive has not been formatted before), the interface assumes that
the hard disk is not usable and turns the computer system back to normal (ie.
NO HARD DISK).  Thus, there are two methods to format the hard disk, depending
on 1) if the disk has already been formatted by FORMWIN (go to the 'Configuring
for SpartaDOS' section) or 2) not (read on).




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The first time the hard disk system is powered up the hard disk is totally
blank.  Since the drive information is not present, the interface will disable
the hard disk and attempt to boot off of floppy drive 1.  You must have a
floppy drive set up as drive 1.

If this is NOT the first time (and the first track has not been trashed), the
hard disk interface will attempt to boot from the 'fake' floppy on the hard
disk drive.  If the system still needs to be booted from the floppy disk (set
up as drive 2), hold down the <HELP> key while powering up the computer.  This
will allow the system to recognize the hard disk drive, but still boot from
floppy disk drive 2.

Before powering up the computer system, make sure there is a correct floppy
disk drive attached and configured for drive 1 or drive 2 as per the
information in the preceding paragraph.  Turn on the hard disk sub-system and
wait for it to come up to speed.  Insert the SpartaDOS 3.2 master diskette into
the correct disk drive.  Remove all cartridges and hold down the <OPTION> key
to disable BASIC.  Turn the computer on (hold down the <HELP> key also if this
is not the first time the system has been powered-up).  If everything is
correctly connected and turned on, the computer should boot from the floppy.

The first step in setting up the hard disk system is to format the hard disk.
Use the external command 'FORMWIN'.  This program will ask for drive number 0
or 1, enter 0.  The next prompt will ask for drive type (0 through 8).  Choose
the drive type number from the following table that corresponds to the type of
hard disk attached to the hard disk system.

     NUMBER    SIZE      TYPE            SPECIFICATIONS
     ----------------------------------------------------
       0        5 Meg    ST-506           153 Cyl/4 Hds
       1        5 Meg    TM-501/ST-706    320 Cyl/2 Hds
       2       10 Meg    TM-502/ST-712    320 Cyl/4 Hds
       3       10 Meg    ST-506           230 Cyl/6 Hds
       4       11 Meg    TM-503           306 Cyl/6 Hds

  (Select '2' if you have a Supra Corp. Hard Disk System)

The format program will warn you that all data on the hard disk will be lost,
answer 'Y'.  The hard disk will be formatted and then verified for bad tracks.
This process will take from 10 to 20 minutes.

When the format program is finished, turn only the computer OFF.  Now attach a
floppy drive configured as drive 2 and re-boot the computer while holding the
<HELP> and <OPTION> keys down.  Now you must configure the hard disks for
SpartaDOS.


Configuring for SpartaDOS
First, use the XINIT command to initialize drive 1 and write SpartaDOS 3.2 to
it (the 'fake' floppy).  You should initialize the drive 1 portion of the hard
disk as a 40 track, single sided, double density drive.  Answer 'N' to
UltraSpeed sector skew.

Next use the HDINIT command to initialize drive 3 (the large portion of the




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hard disk).  All that is required is a volume name and the drive number (3).
Drive 4 will be initialized if you are using a second hard disk drive connected
to your XEBEC controller board.

Now the hard disk is totally configured and you should never have to initialize
it again.  Now re-boot the computer, and simply watch the speed as SpartaDOS
loads in.


Using the Hard Disk
The hard disk sub-system (the physical drive unit) is the only sensitive part
of a hard disk system.  When the hard disk sub-system is running it should
never be moved or bumped.  The heads in the hard disk are extremely close to
the surface of the hard disk and any movement may cause the heads to hit the
media surface causing a literal head crash.

The hard disk system should be turned on in a specific sequence.  First turn on
the hard disk sub-system and wait for it to come up to speed (the motor sound
should be steady).  If the computer is turned on before the hard disk is ready,
the computer will either try to boot off of floppy drive 1 or give 'BOOT
ERROR'.  To boot the computer from a floppy disk, put the diskette into disk
drive 2 and hold down the <HELP> key while turning the computer on.

The following is a description of the utility programs by SUPRA CORPORATION for
use with the hard disk.

FORMWIN   This program formats and verifies the whole hard disk.
LOCK1     This program write protects the 'fake' floppy drive.
OPEN1     This program unprotects the 'fake' floppy drive.
LOCK34    This program write protects hard disk drives 3 and 4.
OPEN34    This program unprotects hard disk drives 3 and 4.
ADDLF     This program adds line feeds to all carriage returns that are issued
          to the parallel printer port on the interface.
RMVLF     This program stops the adding of line feeds to carriage returns
          issued to the parallel printer port.
PARK      This program positions the heads at the innermost track.  A good
          practice before moving the hard disk system.


Some Notes About SpartaDOS
You may also use the SpartaDOS commands LOCK, UNLOCK, PROTECT and UNPROTECT, to
prevent accidental erasure of your files on the hard disk system.  The BYPASS
command from SpartaDOS allows the use of a floppy as drive 1.  SpartaDOS will
support 128 files per directory with an unlimited number of directories, and up
to 16 megabytes as one drive.  Use and enjoy.













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« This page (revision-2) was last changed on 04-Apr-2010 19:12 by Carsten Strotmann